PaperDekho

PaperDekho : Computer

PaperDekho : Computer


Some Short-Cut Keys
Some basic Keys Common Tasks

Ctrl + Shift + Spacebar - Create a non breaking space
Ctrl + B - Make letters bold
Ctrl + I - Make letters italic
Ctrl + U - Make letters underline
Ctrl + Shift+ < - Decrease font size one value
Ctrl + Shift + > - Increase the font size one value
Ctrl + [ - Increase the font size by 1 point
Ctrl + ] - Decrease the font size by 1 point
Ctrl + Spacebar - Remove paragraph or character formatting.
Ctrl + C - Copy the selected text or object
Ctrl + X - Cut the selected text or object
Ctrl + V - Paste text or an object
Ctrl + Alt + V - Paste special
Ctrl + Shift + V - Paste formatting only
Ctrl + Z - Undo the last action
Ctrl + Y - Redo the last action


Control - Keys + Function Keys

Ctrl+F2 - Choose the print preview command (Microsoft office Button)
Ctrl+F3 - Cut on the spike 
Ctrl+F4 - Close the window
Ctrl+F6 - Go to the next window
Ctrl+F9 - Insert an empty field
Ctrl+F10 - Maximise the document window
Ctrl+F11 - Lock a field
Ctrl+F12 - Choose the Open command (Microsoft Office Button)
Function Keys

Ctrl+F2 - Choose the print preview command (Microsoft office Button)
Ctrl+F3 - Cut on the spike 
Ctrl+F4 - Close the window
Ctrl+F6 - Go to the next window
Ctrl+F9 - Insert an empty field
Ctrl+F10 - Maximise the document window
Ctrl+F11 - Lock a field
Ctrl+F12 - Choose the Open command (Microsoft Office Button)
Ctrl+F2 - Choose the print preview command (Microsoft office Button)
Ctrl+F3 - Cut on the spike 
Ctrl+F4 - Close the window

Shortcut Keys of MS-Excel

F2 - Edit the selected cell
F5 - Go to a  specific cell
F7 - Spell check selected text and/or document
F11 - Create  chart
Ctrl + Shift + ; - Enter the current time
Ctrl + ; - Enter the current date
Shift + F3 - Open the Excel formula window
Shift + F5 - Bring up search box.
Ctrl + A - Select all contents of the worksheet
Ctrl + B - Bold highlighted selection
Ctrl + I - Italic highlighted selection
Ctrl + U - Underline highlighted selection
Ctrl + P - Bring up the print dialog box to begin printing
Ctrl + Z - Undo last action
Ctrl + F9 - Minimise current workbook
Ctrl + F10 - Maximise currently selected workbook
Ctrl + F6 - Switch between open workbooks/window
Ctrl + Page Up - Move between Excel worksheet in the same Excel document.
Ctrl + Page Down - Move between Excel worksheets in the same Excel document
Ctrl + Tab - Move between two or more open Excel files
Alt + = - Create a formula to sum all of the above cells
Ctrl + ’ - Insert the value of the above cell into cell currently selected.
Ctrl + Arrow key - Move to next section to text
Ctrl + Space - Select entire column
Shift + Space - Select entire row

Important Short Forms
Here we are presenting to you all the "Computer - Some Important Short Forms". Hope you all like the post!!!

GOOGLE : Global Organization Of Oriented Group Language Of Earth .
YAHOO : Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle .
WINDOW : Wide Interactive Network Development for Office work Solution
COMPUTER : Common Oriented Machine Particularly United and used under Technical and Educational Research.
VIRUS : Vital Information Resources Under Siege .
UMTS : Universal Mobile Telecommunications System .
AMOLED: Active-matrix organic light-emitting diode
OLED : Organic light-emitting diode
IMEI: International Mobile Equipment Identity .
ESN: Electronic Serial Number .
UPS: uninterrupted power supply .
HDMI: High-Definition Multimedia Interface
VPN: virtual private network
APN: Access Point Name
SIM: Subscriber Identity Module
LED: Light emitting diode.
DLNA: Digital Living Network Alliance
RAM: Random access memory.
ROM: Read only memory.
VGA: Video Graphics Array
QVGA: Quarter Video Graphics Array
WVGA: Wide video graphics array.
WXGA: Wide screen Extended Graphics Array
USB: Universal serial Bus
WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network
PPI: Pixels Per Inch
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display.
HSDPA: High speed down-link packet access.
HSUPA: High-Speed Uplink Packet Access
HSPA: High Speed Packet Access
GPRS: General Packet Radio Service
EDGE: Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution
NFC: Near field communication
OTG: on-the-go
S-LCD: Super Liquid Crystal Display
O.S: Operating system.
SNS: Social network service
H.S: HOTSPOT
P.O.I: point of interest
GPS: Global Positioning System
DVD: Digital Video Disk / digital versatile disc
DTP: Desk top publishing.
DNSE: Digital natural sound engine .
OVI: Ohio Video Intranet
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
WCDMA: Wide-band Code Division Multiple Access
GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications
WI-FI: Wireless Fidelity
DIVX: Digital internet video access.
APK: authenticated public key.
J2ME: java 2 micro edition
DELL: Digital electronic link library.
ACER: Acquisition Collaboration Experimentation Reflection
RSS: Really simple syndication
TFT: thin film transistor
AMR: Adaptive Multi- Rate
MPEG: moving pictures experts group
IVRS: Interactive Voice Response System
HP: Hewlett Packard-Gauri


Important Abbreviations
A

Al – Artificial intelligence
ALGOL – Algorithmic Language
ARP – Address resolution Protocol
ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange

B

BINAC  - Binary Automatic Computer
BCC – Blind Carbon Copy
Bin – Binary
BASIC - Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BIOS – Basic Input Output System
Bit – Binary Digit
BSNL – Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited

C

CC – Carbon Copy
CAD – Computer Aided Design
COBOL – Common Business Oriented Language
CD – Compact Disc
CRT – Cathode Ray Tube 
CDR – Compact Disc Recordable
CDROM – Compact Disc Read Only Memory 
CDRW – Compact Disc Rewritable
CDR/W – Compact Disk Read/Write

D

DBA – Data Base Administrator
DBMS – Data Base Management System 
DNS – Domain Name System
DPI – Dots Per Inch
DRAM – Dynamic Random Access Memory
DVD – Digital Video Disc/Digital Versatile Disc
DVDR – DVD Recordable
DVDROM – DVD Read Only Memory
DVDRW – DVD Rewritable
DVR – Digital Video Recorder
DOS – Disk Operating System

E

EBCDIC – Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
e-Commerce – Electronic Commerce
EDP – Electronic Data Processing
EEPROM – Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
ELM/e-Mail – Electronic Mail
ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer 
EOF - End Of File 
EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory 
EXE - Executable 

F

FAX - Far Away Xerox/ facsimile
FDC - Floppy Disk Controller 
FDD - Floppy Disk Drive 
FORTRAN - Formula Translation 
FS - File System 
FTP - File Transfer Protocol

G

Gb - Gigabit 
GB - Gigabyte 
GIF - Graphics Interchange Format 
GSM -  Global System for Mobile Communication

H

HDD - Hard Disk Drive 
HP - Hewlett Packard
HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language 
HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

I

IBM - International Business Machine 
IM - Instant Message
IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol 
ISP - Internet Service Provider

J

JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group

K

Kb - Kilobit 
KB - Kilobyte 
KHz - Kilohertz 
Kbps - Kilobit Per Second

L

LCD – Liquid Crystal Display
LED – Light Emitting Diode
LPI – Lines Per Inch
LIS – Large Scale Integration

M

Mb – Megabit
MB – Megabyte
MPEG – Moving Picture Experts Group
MMS – Multimedia Message Service
MICR – Magnetic Ink Character reader
MIPS – Million Instructions Per Second

N

NIC – Network Interface Card
NOS – Network Operating System

O

OMR – Optical Mark Reader
OOP – Object Oriented Programming
OSS – Open Source Software

P

PAN – Personal Area Network
PC – Personal Computer
PDA - Personal Digital Assistant
PDF – Portable Document Format
POS – Point Of Sale
PNG - Portable Network Graphics
PPM – Pages Per Minute
PPP – Point-to-Point Protocol
PROM – Programmable Read Only Memory
PSTN – Public Switched Telephone Network
POST – Power On Self Test
PING – Packet Internet Gopher

R

RAM – Random Access Memory
RDBMS – Relational Data Base Management System
RIP – Routing Information Protocol
RTF – Rich Text Format

S

SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SQL – Structured Query Language
SRAM – Static Random Access Memory
SNMP – Simple Network Management Protocol
SIM – Subscriber Identification Module

T

TCP – Transmission Control Protocol
TB – Tera Bytes

U

UPS – Uninterrupted Power Supply
URI – Uniform Resource Identifier
URL – Uniform Resource Locator
USB -  Universal Serial Bus 
ULSI - Ultra Large Scale Integration
UNIVAC - Universal Automatic Computer

V

VAR – Variable
VGA – Video Graphics Array
VSNL – Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited
VDU – Visual Display Unit

W

Wi-Fi – Wireless Fidelity
WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network
WPA – Wi-Fi Protected Access
WWW – World Wide Web
WORM – Write Once Read Many

X

XHTML – eXtensible Hyper text Markup Language
XML -  eXtensible Markup language

Z

ZB – Zeta Byte

Some other Important Abbreviations - 


OCR - Optical Character Readers
ODBC - Open Data Base Connectivity
OLE - Object Linking And Embedding
OMR - Optical Mark Reader
ONE - Open Network Architecture
OOA - Object Orient Analysis
OOAD - Object Oriented Analysis And Design
OOP - Object Oriented Programming
OOPS - Object Oriented Programming System
OPEN GL - Open Graphics Library
OS - Operating System
OSI - Open System Interconnection
PC - Personal Computer
PCI - Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCMCIA - Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PDA - Personal Digital Assistant
PDF - Portable Document Format
PDL - Page Description Language
PDU - Protocol Data Unit
PIC - Programming Interrupt Control
PILOT - Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching
PLA - Programmable Logic Array
PLC - Programmable Logic Controller
PNG - Portable Network Graphics
PNP - Plug And Play
PPP - Peer To Peer Protocol
PPTP - Point To Point Tunneling Protocol
PROM - Programmable Read Only Memory
PS - Post Script
RADSL - Rate Adaptive Digital Subscribes Line
RAID - Redundant Array Of Independent Disks
RAM - Random Access Memory
RAMDAC - Random Access Memory Digital To Analog Converter
RAS - Remote Access Network
RD RAM - Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory
RDBMS - Relational Data Base Management System
RDO - Remote Data Objects
RDP - Remote Desktop Protocol
RFC - Request For Comments
RGB - Red Green Blue
RICS - Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RIP - Raster Image Processor
RISC - Reduced Instruction Set Computer
ROM - Read Only Memory
RPC - Remote Procedure Call
RTC - Real Time Clock
RTF - Rich Text Format
RTOS - Real Time Operating System
SACK  - Selective Acknowledgements
SAM - Security Access Manager
SAP - Service Access Point, Systems ApplicationsProducts
SCMP -  Software Configuration Management Plan
SD RAM - Synchronous Dynamic Random AccessMemory
SDD  - Software Design Description
SDK - Software Development Kit
SDL - Storage Definition Language
SDN - Integrated Service Digital Network
SDSL - Symmetric Digital Subscribes Line
SG RAM - Synchronous Graphics Random AccessMemory
SGML - Standard Generalized Markup Language
SIM - Subscriber Identification Module
SIMD - Single Instruction Multiple Data
SISD - Single Instruction Single Data
SIU - Serial Interface Unit
SMP - Symmetric MultiProcess
SMS - Short Message Service
SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNA - System Network Architecture
SNAP - Sub Network Access Protoco
lSNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol
SNOBOL - String Oriented Symbolic Language
SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol
SPX - Sequenced Packet Exchange
SQA - Statistical Quality Assurance
SQL - Structured Query Language
SRAM - Static Random Access Memory
SRS - Software Requirements Specification
STP - Shielded Twisted Pair
SVVP - Software Verification And Validation Plan
SW - Software
TAPI - Telephony Application Program Interface
TB - Tera Bytes
TCP - Transmission Control Protocol
TCPIP - Transmission Control Protocol InternetProtocol
TDI - Transport Data Interface
TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access
TPM - Transactions Processing Monitor
TSR - Terminate And Stay Residents
UDD - User Datagram Protocol
UDP - User Datagram Protocol
UI - User Interface
UML - Unified Modelling Language
UNC - Universal Naming Convention
UNIX - Uniplexed Information And ComputerSystems
URL - Universal Resource Locator
USB - Universal Serial Bus
USRT - Universal Synchronous ReceiverTransmitted
UTP  -Unshielded Twisted Pair
VAN - Virtual Area Network
VAST - Very Small Aperture Terminal
VB - Visual Basic
VC++ - Visual C++
VCD - Video Compact Disc
VDL - View Definition Language
VGA - Video Graphics Array
VHS - Video Home System
VLIW - Very Long Instruction Words
VLSI - Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits
VPN - Virtual Private Network
VRAM - Video Random Access Memory
VRML - Virtual Reality Modelling Language
VS - Visual Studio
VVR - Software Validation And Validation Report
VXD - Virtual Device Driver
W3C - World Wide Web Consortium
WAIS - Wide Area Information Servers
WAN - Wide Area Network
WAP - Wireless Application Protocol
WBEM - WebBase Enterprise Management
WDM - Wave Division Multiplexing

Computer Tit-Bits
Hope you like the post!!
KonradZuse invented the World’s first computer was named as the Z1 in 1936. It was the First freely programmable computer.
The first computer game was “Spacewar!".  This game was programmed by Steve Russell and first released in February 1962.
Jack Kilby& Robert Noyce develop the first Integrated Circuit (The Chip) in 1958
In 1954 John Backus & IBM develop first successful high level programming language FORTRAN Computer Programming Language
ARPAnet the first Internet connectivity started in 1969.
WordStar Software is the first release of Word Processors application developed by Seymour Rubenstein & Rob Barnaby in 1979.
Apple Lisa Computer is the first home computer with a GUI (graphical user interface) in 1983
The first web browser was invented by Sir Tim Berners-Lee in 1990. It was called WorldWideWeb (no spaces) and was later renamed Nexus.
The first search engine created was Archie, in 1990 by Alan Emtage, a student of McGill University in Montreal.
On Aug. 6, 1991, Tim Berners-Lee published the first internet site from CERN, the world’s largest physics lab in Geneva, Switzerland.
The first supercomputer was the Control Data Corporation (CDC) 6600 with a single CPU. It was released in 1964.
India's first supercomputer is PARAM 8000, which was installed in 1991.
NVIDIA's Tesla computer was launched in London in December 2008 is first personal supercomputer.
The first banner advertising was used in 1994.
The E-mail is older than the World Wide Web.
The first domain name ever registered was Symbolics.com.
Rich Skrenta generated the first computer virus in February 1982. He is the author of Elk Cloner, the first computer virus to be released outside of the lab.
The first version of Excel was released for the Mac in 1985 and the first Windows version was released in November 1987.
Nobody can create a folder named “Con” in windows system.
TYPEWRITER is the longest word that can be made using the letters only on one row of the keyboard
Each Excel worksheet holds 1,048,576 rows and 16, 384 columns which makes 17,179,869,184 cells per worksheet.
Up to last 100 actions can be undo in excel.


Generation and memory Units
Memory Units:

4 bit = 1 nibble
8 bit = 1 byte
1024 B = 1 KB (Kilo Byte)
1024 KB = 1 MB (Mega Byte)
1024 MB = 1 GB (Giga Byte)
1024 GB = 1 TB (Tera Byte)
1024 TB = 1 PB (Peta Byte)
1024 PB = 1 XB (Exa Byte)
1024 XB = 1 ZB (Zeta Byte)
1024 ZB = 1 YB (Yota Byte)

bit < Byte < KB < MB < GB < TB < PB < XB < ZB < YB

bit (b)
Byte (B)
Mbps – mega bits per sec.
MBps – mega Bytes per sec.

The information you put into the computer is called Data
Information of a computer is stored as Digital Data
A number system defines a set of values that is used to represent Quantity
In which number system, the modern computers are operated?
Binary Number System
Name the most significant bit, which represent 1 and 0 for a positive number and negative number, respectively.
Sign Bit
Which coding scheme represents data in a binary form in the computer system? ASCII, EBCDIC and Unicode are the most commonly used codes under this scheme.
Binary Coding Scheme
EBCDIC is a 8-Bit code with 256 different representations of characters. It is mainly used in mainframe computers.
EBCDIC stands for Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
In the Hexadecimal Number System each number represents a power of 16. To represent the decimal numbers, this system uses numbers from 0 to 9 and characters from A to F to represent numbers 10-15, respectively. It is commonly used as a shortcut notation for groups of four binary digits
BCD is a method that represents the decimal digits with the help of binary digits. It takes advantage that one decimal numeral can be represented by 4-bit pattern. BCD stands for Binary Coded Decimal
This coding system is used to represent the interval storage area of the computers. In this system, every character is represented by a combination of bits. Binary Coding System
The Base or Radix of the decimal number system is 10
The arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) performed on the binary numbers is called Binary Arithmetic
What is the standard code the computer industry created to represent characters? American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
ASCII is a code used for standardizing the storage and transfer of information amongst various computing devices.
It is required for representing more than 64 characters. At present, the mostly used coding systems are ASCII and EBCDIC
Which code is also known as Reflected Code? Gray Code
The 7-bit ASCII code is widely used for Two (0 or 1)
In the binary language, each letter of the alphabet, each number and each special character is made up of a unique combination of Eight Bits.
GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER
Which was the first general purpose computer, designed to handle both numeric and textual information? Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) (1951)
First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes:
The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms.
The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. 
In first generation of computer, this operating system allowed only one program to run at a time and a number of input jobs are grouped for processing. It is known as Batch Processing.
Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors:
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers.
Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits:
The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.
Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors:
The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.
What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand
Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices
Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial Intelligence:
Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.
In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh.


File Extensions
Text Files
.log: Log File
.wpd: WordPerfect Document
.odt:  OpenDocument Text Document
.pages:  Pages Document
.doc:  Microsoft Word Document
.docx:  Microsoft Word Open XML Document
.tex:  LaTeX Source Document
.wps:  Microsoft Works Word Processor Document
.msg:  Outlook Mail Message
.rtfRich:  Text Format File
.txtPlain:  Text File

Data Files
.vcf:  vCard File
.dat:  Data File
.pptx:  PowerPoint Open XML Presentation
.sdf:  Standard Data File
.tar:  Consolidated Unix File Archive
.csv:  Comma Seperated Values File
.xml:  XML File
.pps:  PowerPoint Slide Show
.ppt:  PowerPoint Presentation

Audio Files
.aif:  Audio Interchange File Format
.mpa:  MPEG-2 Audio File
.ra:  Real Audio File
.iff:  Interchange File Format
.wav:  WAVE Audio File
.wma:  Windows Media Audio File
.mp3:  MP3 Audio File

Video Files
.avi:  Audio Video Interleave File
.3gp3:  GPP Multimedia File
.flv:  Flash Video File
.mpg:  MPEG Video File
.vob:  DVD Video Object File
.mp4:  MPEG-4 Video File
.3g:  23GPP2 Multimedia File
.m4:  viTunes Video File
.wmv:  Windows Media Video File