PaperDekho : English

PaperDekho : English

1. Adjective
An adjective is a word used with a noun ( or a pronoun) to add something for its meaning. The adjective may be used
(i) attributively: when it is used along with the noun as an epithet or attribute; for example,
There were dark clouds in the sky.
(ii) predicatively : when it forms part of the predicate; for example.
The clouds in the sky were dark.

Rule : The adjective is correctly used with a verb when some quality of the subject rather than of the action of the verb, is to be expressed.
Incorrect: Flowers were plucked freshly.
Correct: Flowers were plucked fresh.

Rule: Due to and prior to should be used as predicative adjectives. When prepositional functions are to be performed, use because of in place of due to, and before in place of prior to.
Incorrect : Wickets fell due to superb bowling.
Correct : Wickets fell because of superb bowling.

Kinds of Adjective
1. Adjective of Quality : Also known as Descriptive Adjective, it shows the kind of quality of a person or a thing. For example,
He loves her soft skin.

2. Adjective of Quantity : It is an adjective which shows how much of a thing is meant. For example, There is little sense in it.

3. Adjective of Number : Also known as Numeral Adjective, it shows how many persons or things are meant, or in what order a person or a thing stands. For example,
The face of a clock has sixty divisions.

Numeral Adjectives are of three kinds:
(i) Definite Numeral Adjective: It denotes an exact number. It may be a cardinal denoting how many; as, one, two, three, etc. It may be an ordinal denoting the order, as first, second, third etc.

Rule: When a number together with a unit of measurement is to be used as an adjective, it is a compound word and the unit of measurement is taken in the singular.
Incorrect : It is a twenty-kilometres walk.
Correct : It is a twenty-kilometre walk.

Rule: Definite Numeral Adjective always takes plural countable noun.
Incorrect: When I was in Punjab, I had twenty money.
Correct: When I was in Mumbai, I had twenty rupees.

Rule: If in a sentence one noun is used for all ordinals and the first ordinal has 'the' while, other not, the noun will be in the plural.
Incorrect: I have read the literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth century.
Correct: I have read the literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

(ii) Indefinite Numeral Adjective : It does not denote an exact number. For example. There are many petitions lying on the tables.

Rule :Many takes plural noun while "Many a/an singular noun.
Incorrect: He has observed many an uncommon phenomena.
Correct: He has observed many an uncommon phenomenon.

Rule : The few is used before plural countable noun and the little before uncountable noun. Both follow a clause.
Incorrect: I gave the beggar a little coins I had.
Correct: I gave the beggar the few coins I had.

(iii) Distributive Numeral Adjective : It refers to each one of a number. Distributive numeral adjectives are the same as distributive pronouns (see Pronoun). They only differ in function. For example,
Each time he missed the bus.

4. Demonstrative Adjective : It points out which person or thing is meant. For example,
This table is made of wood.

Rule : The plural forms these and those are often wrongly used with the singular nouns kind and sort.
Incorrect : These kind of clothes are not acceptable.
Correct : This kind of clothes are not acceptable.

5. Interrogative Adjective: When an interrogative pronoun is used with a noun to ask a question, it is called an interrogative adjective. For example,
What options are available after graduation?

6. Exclamatory adjective: It is used with a noun in-exclamatory sentence. For example,
What a show!

Confusing Words 
Later, latter, latest, last: Later and latest refer to time. Latter and last refer to position.
Incorrect: The later part of the novel is not neatly written.
Correct: The latter part of the novel is not neatly written.
Incorrect: What is the last news?
Correct: What is the latest news?

Elder, older, eldest, oldest: Elder and eldest are used of members of the same family. Besides, both of them are used only attributively (that is, before the noun). Older and Oldest are used in the general sense.
Incorrect : I have an older brother.
Correct : I have an elder brother.. (Since brother is a member of the same family)
Incorrect : Mohan is the eldest boy in the town.

In a town there may be so many families. We are talking of boys in general sense. So eldest should be replaced by oldest.
Correct : Mohan is the oldest boy in the town.

Degree of Comparison
Degrees are of three kinds.
1. Positive Degree
2. Comparative Degree
3. Superlative Degree

Rule: When a selection is made out of the two, and two is given in the sentence, the is used before the adjective denoting comparison.
Incorrect: Shikha is better of the two sisters.
Correct: Shikha is the better of the two sisters.

Rule: Preferable takes to and is not preceded by more.
Incorrect: Coffee is more preferable than tea in Brazil.
Correct: Coffee is preferable to tea in Brazil.

Rule: When two adjectives in different degrees of comparison are used in the same sentence, each should be complete in itself.
Incorrect: My father is as rich if not richer than your mother.
Correct: My father is as rich as if not richer than your mother.

Rule: If two adjectives are connected by and, they should be in the same degree throughout.
Incorrect: Raj is more intelligent and most active.
Correct: Raj is more intelligent and more active.

Rule: The comparative in -er is not used when we compare two qualities of the same person or thing.
Incorrect : Mohan is wiser than strong.
Correct : Mohan is more wise than strong.

Rule: When two objects are compared with each other, the latter term of comparison must exclude the former.
Incorrect : Satish is cleverer than any student in his class.
Correct : Satish is cleverer than any other student in his class.

Rule: The comparative degree is generally followed by than but the following comparative adjectives are followed by the preposition to : inferior, superior, prior, anterior, posterior, senior, junior.
Incorrect: India's fielding is inferior than South Africa's.
Correct: India's fielding is inferior to South Africa's.

Rule: Adjectives expressing qualities that do not admit of different degrees cannot be compared.
Incorrect: Our field is more square.
Correct: Our field is square.

Rule: Double comparatives and superlatives are to be avoided.
Incorrect: Zarda mangoes are more sweeter than Maldah ones.
Correct: Zarda mangoes are sweeter than Maldah ones.

An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or an adverb. For example

Rama runs quickly.
Govinda reads quite clearly.

Kinds of Adverb
(a) According to meaning
1) Adverbs of Time : They are the adverbs which tell us when an action takes place. For example,
I shall meet you tomorrow.

Rule : Time adverbs cannot be used in the present perfect, instead the past indefinite is used for them.
Incorrect : I have seen a 3D movie last night.
Correct : I saw a 3D movie last night.

2) Adverbs of Place : They are the adverbs which tell us where an action takes place. For example,
He left his bag there.

3) Adverbs of Manner : They are the adverbs which tell us how an action takes place or in what manner. For example, Gautam Buddha left his family stealthily.

4) Adverbs of Frequency : They are the adverbs which tell us how often an action takes place. For example, The Delhi Police is always with you .

5) Adverbs of Degree or Quantity : They are the adverbs which tell us how much or in what degree or to what extent. For example,
I have pleaded enough and now I give up.

Rule : The adverb “so” as an adverb of degree must not be used absolutely.
Incorrect : He is so rich.
Correct : He is very rich.

Rule : That “should not be used instead of ” so “as an adverb”.

Incorrect : He went only that far.
Correct : He went only so far.

Rule : The adverb “too” should not be used instead of “very” or “much” and vice versa.
Incorrect : She is too intelligent.
Correct : she is very intelligent.

Rule : Much is used with past participles used as adjectives not with present participles.
Incorrect : The match became much interesting.
Correct : The match became very interesting.

Rule : Adverb of degree comes just before the adjective it qualifies.
Incorrect : He too is weak to run.
Correct : He is too weak to run.
They are so honest that they cannot tell a lie.

6) Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation : They are the adverbs which tell us whether an action is done or not. For example,
He has not left the place.

7) Adverbs of Reason : They are the adverbs which tell us why an action takes place. For example,
She therefore decided to be a rich woman.

(b) According to use

1) Simple Adverb : It only modifies some words (verb, adjective or an adverb). All the above examples belong to this category.

2) Interrogative Adverb : It not only modifies some words but also introduces a question. For example, How did you come here?

3) Relative Adverb : It not only modifies some words but also refers back to some antecedent. For example,
How can I forget the day when happiness was
showered on me from all sides?

Forms of adverb :

Rule : Adjective should not be used for adverb.
Incorrect: The moon shone bright in the sky.
Correct: The moon shone brightly in the sky.

Rule : Some adverbs have two forms, the form ending in-ly and the form which is the same as adjective. For example, loud, quick, high, hard, near, late, pretty.
Incorrect: He fought hardly for the No. 1 spot.
Correct: He fought hard for the No. 1 spot.
Similarly, Incorrect: It would hard rain today.
Correct : It would hardly rain today.

Comparison of adverbs :

Rule : If the adverb is of one syllable, the comparative is formed by adding-er and the superlative by addingest to the positive.
Incorrect : The hare ran more fast than the dog.
Correct : The hare ran faster than the dog.

Rule : Adverbs ending in -ly form the comparative by adding more and the superlative by adding most.
Incorrect : The petrol price hike issue has been debated hotlier than the urea scam.
Correct : The petrol price hike issue has been debated more hotly than the urea scam.

Position of adverbs :

Rule : Adverbs of manner, place and time are generally placed after the verb or after the object if there is one.
Incorrect: He wrote last year a book.
Correct: He wrote a book last year.

Rule : When there are two or more adverbs after a verb (and its object), the normal order is; adverb of manner, adverb of place, adverb of time.
Incorrect: I read the proof yesterday meticulously at home.
Correct: I read the proof meticulously at home yesterday.

Rule : Adverbs of frequency and most of the adverbs of quantity are
i) normally put between the subject and the verb if the verb consists of only one word;
ii) put after the first word if there is more than one word in the verb;
iii) put after the verb if the verb is am/are/is/was/were;

Some more rules :

Rule : Two negatives should not be used in the same sentence unless we wish to make an affirmation.
Incorrect: she did not despise none of her lovers.
Correct: She did not despise any of her lovers.

Rule : Ever should not be used for never.
Incorrect: She seldom or ever has sweet talks with her son.
Correct: She seldom or never has sweet talks with her son.

Rule : Else should be followed by but.
Incorrect: It is nothing else than fatigue.
Correct: It is nothing else but fatigue.

Rule : Never should not be used for not.
Incorrect: She met her friend after a long time and her friend never recognised her.
Correct: She met her friend after a long time and her friend did not recognise her.

The words "A" or "An" and "The" are called Articles. They come before nouns. There are two Articles - "A (or An)" and "The".
"A" or "An" is called the Indefinite Article, because it usually leaves indefinite the person or thing spoken of; as, A Ground, A Cow
Indefinite (Not Sure) : If you are talking about some random thing or person, then you use Indefinite Article. In the above example, 'A Cow' means a random cow. Similarly 'A Ground' means any random ground and no one can be sure which we are talking about.

"The" is called the Definite Article, because it normally points out some particular person or thing.
For example, The Cow, The Ground.
Definite Article (a particular thing or person) : If we say 'The' before any noun, it means we are talking about a prticular thing or person. In the above example 'The Cow' means a particular cow. Similarly 'The Ground' means a particular ground.

Use of the indefinite article

Incorrect : There are 365 days in the year.
Every year has 365 days and it is not about the particular year.
Correct : There are 365 days in an year.

Indefinite articles can also be used in a sense of each, every or per.
The doctor said “Take the pill twice a day.”

Use of the definite article

Incorrect : He has been causing trouble since a day he came.
In the above example, the statement is about a particular day therefore 'the' will be used
Correct : He has been causing trouble since the day he came.

When a singular noun is meant to represent a whole class.
The Elephant is a huge animal.

Banking Pathway: Idioms & Phrases
Let's take a look at some of the important Idioms & Phrases asked in the English section.

Be a chicken
Meaning: Be a coward.
Example: Don't be a chicken. Talk to her about your love for her

A little bird told me
Meaning: Said when you don't want reveal the source of your information.
Example: A little bird told me about your birthday.

As gentle as a lamb
Meaning: Said about kind , innocent, mild-mannered people.
Example: She is as gentle as a lamb. That's why everybody likes her.

Back the wrong horse
Meaning: to support someone or something that later cannot be successful.
Example: Don't back the wrong horse! You know he cannot win the elections.

Be a cold fish
Meaning: be a person who is distant and unfeeling
Example: He rarely talks to his colleagues. He's a cold fish.

Be like a fish out of water
Meaning: to feel uncomfortable in a situation 
Example: After her divorce, she was like a fish out of water

Beat a dead horse
Meaning: (Also flog a dead horse.) To persist or continue far beyond any purpose, interest or reason.
Example: If you continue talking about something that cannot be changed, you are beating a dead horse.

Call off the dogs
Meaning: said when you want someone to stop criticizing you
Example: Please, call off the dogs. I apologize for what I have done.

Big fish in a small pond
Meaning: One who has achieved a high rank or is highly esteemed, but only in a small, relatively unimportant, or little known location or organization.
Example: Dr. Jones could get a professorship at an Ivy League university, but he enjoys being a big fish in a small pond too much to ever leave Hannover College.

Cash cow
Meaning: someone or something which is a dependable source of appreciable amounts of money; a moneymaker.
Example: The type writers production which had been their cash cow for so many years witnessed a collapse of sales.

A mare’s nest 
Meaning: a false invention
Example: the involvement of teachers in the scheme proved to be a mare’s nest.

At odds
Meaning: in dispute
Example: The members of the group were at odds over the selection procedure.

No love lost
Meaning: intense dislike
Example: There is no love lost between the two neighbours.

Rub one the wrong way
Meaning: annoy
Example: If you rub him the wrong way, he is bound to react.

Turn the corner
Meaning: pass the crisis
Example: The doctor says that the patient has turned the corner.

Sow wild oats
Meaning: irresponsible pleasure seeking
Example: After sowing his wild oats Ram has decided to stick to the straight and narrow path in future.

With a high hand
Meaning: oppressively
Example: He was a king who ruled his subjects with a high hand.

A good turn
Meaning: an act of kindness
Example: He did me a good turn by recommending me for the post of Vice – president.

A moot point
Meaning: undecided
Example: The question of abolition of property is still a moot point.

Hole and corner
Meaning: secret
Example: I don't want any more hole-in-the-corner deals, from now all our business will be done in the open.

A conjunction is a word which merely joins together sentences or clauses, and sometimes words.
1. That is a beautiful place and I have been there.
2. That is the beautiful place where I have been to.

Classes of Conjunctions
Conjunctions are divided into two classes: 1) Co-ordinating and 2) Sub-ordinating.
1. Co-ordinating conjunction :
It joins together clauses of equal ranks. For eg. He is slow, but he is sure.
2. Sub-ordinating conjunction :
It joins together clauses in which one is dependent on the other. For eg. Since you wish to excel in life, you must learn English.

Some rules

Rule: Scarcely should be followed by when, not by than.
Incorrect: Scarcely had he arrived than he had to leave again.
Correct: Scarcely had he arrived when he had to leave again.

Rule : No sooner is followed by than, not by but.
Incorrect: No sooner had we reached the station but the train left.
correct: No sooner had we reached the station than the train left.
Note : "No sooner A ... than B" is very similar to "Scarcely A... when B" and has almost the same meaning.

Rule : Do not use seldom or ever in place of seldom or never.
Incorrect: The national network seldom or ever telecasts good programmes.
Correct: The national network seldom or never telecasts good programmes.

Rule : Correlative conjunctions should be followed by the same part of speech.
Incorrect: He neither agreed to my proposal nor to his.
Correct: He agreed neither to my proposal nor to his.

Rule : Neither is followed by nor, not by or.
Incorrect: The phone neither went dead or worked properly.
Correct: The phone neither went dead nor worked properly.

Rule : The conjunction that is not used before
i) a sentence in direct narration.
ii) an interrogative adverb or interrogative pronoun in the indirect narration.
Incorrect: He said that, "it is none of my business".
Correct: He said, "It is none of my business."
Incorrect: He asked me that which was the way to the station.
Correct: He asked me which was the way to the station.

Rule : Although goes with yet or a comma (,) in the other clause.
Incorrect: Although Manohar is hardworking, but he does not get a job.
Correct: Although Manohar is hardworking, yet he does not get a job.
Note : Though/Although is used with contradictory sentences (sentences expressing opposite views).
Incorrect: Since she was sick, she attended the party.
Correct: Though she was sick, she attended the party.

Rule : Nothing else should be followed by but, not by than.
Incorrect: Mr Bureaucrat! This is nothing else than red-tapism.
Correct: Mr Bureaucrat! This is nothing else but red-tapism.

Rule : The correlative conjunctions indeed... but are used to emphasis the contrast between the first and the second parts of the statement.
Incorrect: I am indeed happy with my school but it produces famous men.
Correct: I am indeed happy with my school that it produces famous men.

Rule : In a "not only ... but also ... "sentence, the verb should agree with the noun or pronoun mentioned second, that is, the one after but also because this is the part being emphasised.
Incorrect: Not only the students but also the teacher were responsible for what happened in the class.
Correct: Not only the students but also the teacher was responsible for what happened in the class.

Rule : Not only ... but also always comes before the same part of speech.
Incorrect: They not only gave me standing ovation but also a cash prize of `1000.
Correct: They gave me not only standing ovation but also a cash prize of `1000.

Rule : is used to denote a category whereas such...that emphasises the degree of something by mentioning its consequence.
Incorrect: Each member of the alliance agrees to take such action as it deems necessary.
Correct: Each member of the alliance agrees to take such action that it deems necessary.

Rule : The conjunction “lest” is followed by “should”.
Incorrect: Work hard lest you would fail.
Correct: Work hard lest you should fail.
Note: “Lest” is a negative word. There should be no use of “not”, “nothing”, “never”, “no” with lest”.
Incorrect: Word hard lest you should not fail.
Correct: Word hard lest you should fail.

Rule : The conjunction so—as is used for comparison in a negative sentence whereas—as is used in a positive or affirmative sentence.
Incorrect: He is not as tall as his brother.
Correct: He is not so tall as his brother.

Rule : The conjunction, “both” is followed by “and” and not by “as well as” or “along with”.
Incorrect: Both the boys as well as the girls were asbent.
Correct: Both the boys and the girls were absent.

Rule : The conjunction “unless” denotes condition whereas “until” denotes time.
Incorrect: Until you work hard, you will not succeed.
Correct: Unless you work hard, you will not succeed.
Note : “Unless” and “Until” are negative words. There should be no use of “not” “nothing”, “never” with unless and until.

Easy Way to learn English Vocabulary
1.Word: Pallid
Meaning - ????
Key - ????
Description - ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ??.
Synonyms - Ghastly, Wan, Ashen, Pal, Pale
Usage - an utterly pallid and charmless character

2.Word: Palpable
Meaning-  ??????, ???? Touch ???? ?? ???
Key - Pulp
Description - ?? ?? Pulp ?? ????? ?? Touch ???? ?? ???? ??.
Synonyms - Obvious, Evident, Noticeable, Tangible, Gross
Usage - the palpable bump at the bridge of the nose.

3. Word: Quixotic
Meaning - ??????????, Unrealistic And Impractical
Key - Quick So Thick (???? ????)
Description - ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?? Quick ?? ?? ?? ?? ?????? Unrealistic ??? ??.
Synonyms - Visionary, Unachievable
Usage - a vast and perhaps quixotic project.

4.Word: Quorum
Meaning - ????????, The Minimum Number Of Members Of An Assembly That Must Be Present To Make A Meeting Valid.
Key - ????? Rum(????)
Description - Election ??? ???????? ???? ?? ??? Rum ????? ????? ?? ??? ???? Support ???? ???? ?? ?? ???? Rum ?? ?? ???? ???.

5.Word: Rankle
Meaning - ?????? ???? ????, Continue To Be Painful
Key - Ankle (????)
Description - ???? Ankle ???? ???? ?? ??? ??
Synonyms - Embitter, Inflame, Pain, Fester, Irritate
Usage - the casual manner of his dismissal still rankles

6.Word: Rapt
Meaning - ???, ???, Completely Fascinated By What One Is Seeing Or Hearing
Key - ???
Description - ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????
Synonyms - Abducted, Ecstasy, Ecstatic, Absorbed, Enraptured
Usage - Andrew looked at her, rapt

7.Word: Sage
Meaning - ??????, A Profoundly Wise Man
Key - ???
Description- ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???.
Synonymsn - Wiseacre, Solemn, Sagacious, Ramona, Wise

8.Word: Salubrious
Meaning - ?????????, ????????
Key - Salu Brush
Description - Salu ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? Brush ???? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ??.
Synonyms - Wholesome, Healthful, Salutary, Healthy
Usage - salubrious weather

9.Word: Tabooed
Meaning - ??????????
Key - ????? (Film Actress)
Description - ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???.
Usage - Traditional societies taboo female handling of food during this period

10. Word: Taciturn
Meaning - ?? ????? ????
Key - ???? Turn
Description - ?? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?? Turn ?? ???.
Synonyms - Silent, Reticent, Reserved

1.       Word: Abhor
???? ????, To Regard With Horror Or Loathing; Detest
Ab –Horror
?? ??? Horror Movies ???? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??, ???? ???? ?????? Movies ????? ???.

Abominate, Hate, Nauseated, Dislike, Despise
professional tax preparers abhor a flat tax because it would dry up their business

2.       Word: Badinage
Humorous Conversation, ???????
????- ???
Raju Shrivastav ???? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??.
Pleasantry, Banter
cultured badinage about art and life

3.       Word: Calamity
?????, Disaster
???? Mity (??????)
?? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??.
Extremity, Infelicity, Adversity, Catastrophe, Unhappiness
the journey had led to calamity and ruin

4.       Word: Dearth
????, ???, Scarcity, Shortage, Lack
De (???) –Earth
Earth ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??.
Shortage, Famine, Deficiency, Paucity, Scarcity
there is a dearth of evidence

5.       Word: Ecstasy
????????, ?????? ???? ????, An Overwhelming Feeling Of Great Happiness Or Joyful Excitement
??? ?? ????
??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ??.
6.       Word: Facile
Having A Superficial Or Simplistic Knowledge Or Approach, ???? ???????
???? ???? ?? Face ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ??.
Pliant, Expert, Yielding, Skillful, Fluent
a man of facile and shallow intellect

7.       Word: Gainsay
??? ????, Deny
Gain Se (??)
???? Illigal ????? ?? ???? Gain ???? ?? Deny ?? ????.
Dispute, Deny, Contradict, Controvert, Forbid
the impact of the railroads cannot be gainsaid

8.       Word: Hampered
?????? ???? ????, Hinder Or Impede The Movement Or Progress Of
?? ??
???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????- ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ??.
their work is hampered by lack of funds

9.       Word: Ignominy
Public Shame Or Disgrace, ????
Ignou ??? ????
Ignou ??? ???? ?????. ???? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??.
Discredit, Reproach, Opprobrium, Dishonor, Infamy
the ignominy of being imprisoned

10.   Word: Jocular
Joke In Cooler
?? Cooler ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ??.
Jocose, Silly, See, Merry, Unemotional
she sounded in a jocular mood.

1.       Word:- Kindle 
?????, ???????, Light Or Set On Fire
??????? ?? ?? Candle ????? ???.
Synonyms: Flash, Animate, Inflame, Conflagrate, Catch
Usage: a love of art was kindled in me

2.       Word:- Labile
???????????, Liable To Change
?? + Bible
?? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?? Bible ??? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ????.
Synonyms: Unstable

3.       Word:- Magnanimous
???? ??? ????
?????? ????
?? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??.
Synonyms : Big-Hearted, Unselfish, Great-Hearted, Noble, Honorable

4.       Word:- Naive
????????, (Of A Person Or Action) Showing A Lack Of Experience
??? ????? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??? ???.
Frank, Artless, Credulous, Ingenuous
the rather naive young man had been totally misled

5.       Word:- Obeisance
???????, ??????
??? Sense
??? ???? ??? Sense ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??.
Synonyms: Bowl, Deference, Obedience, Curtsy, Bow
Usage: - they paid obeisance to the prince

6.       Word:- Palatable
Pleasant To Taste, ?????????
Plate -Table
Table ?? ?? Plate ??? ?? ????? ???? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ??.
Synonyms: - Toothful, Nectared, Appetizing, Nice, Nectarine
Usage:- a very palatable local red wine

7.       Word:- Quaint
????? ?? ??????, Old-Fashioned In A Charming Way
Kuwait ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???.
Synonyms: - Archaic, Prudent, Wise, Artful, Whimsical
Usage: - quaint country cottages

8.       Word:- Rabid
????, ?????
???? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? Rabies ?? ???.
Synonyms: Mad, Raging, Furious, Violent, Frantic
Usage: a rabid feminist
9.       Word:- Gaiety
????, ??????
GATE ?? ???? ??? ????? Percentile ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???.
Usage: - the sudden gaiety of childrens laughter

10.   Word:- Diffident
??????????? ??? ???, Shy, Timid, Bashful
Defeat ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ? ???? ??.
Synonyms: - Suspicious, Distrustful, Doubtful, Lowly, Hesitating
Usage: -a diffident youth

1.       Word:  Abate
Meaning :
?? ????,  Cause to become smaller or less intense.
?? – eight (??)
???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? weight ?? ?? ??? ??
Synonyms : Depress , fall though , Cut short , intermit, lower.
Usage : the storm suddenly abate.

2.       Word: Babble
Meaning :
Bubblegum ???? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ???
Twaddle, Prating, Blather, Cackle, Deblateration
he would babble on in his gringo Spanish

3.       Word: Cabal
????? ??, A Cabal Is A Group Of People United In Some Close Design Together
Electricity –Cable
????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?? Cable ????? ???? ?? ??? ??.
Message, Conspiracy, Junto, Rope, Conductor
Usage:- a cabal of dissidents

4.       Word: Dainty
?????, Delicately Small And Pretty
?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???.
Estimation, Nice, Pretty, Delicacy, Sweetmeat
Usage:- a dainty lace handkerchief

5.       Word: Eclectic
??????{??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????}, Selecting Or Employing Individual Elements From A Variety Of Sources
?? Elastic
?? Elastic Bag ???? ???? ???? Bags ??? ???? ??.
Choosing, Selecting, Heterogeneous
Usage:- her musical tastes are eclectic

6.       Word: Facetious
??????????, Lacking Serious Intent; Concerned With Something Nonessential, Amusing
?????? ???? ???? ?? Face ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??.
Merry, Witty, Funny, Jocular, Humorous

7.       Word: Gaiety
????, ??????
GATE ?? ???? ??? ????? Percentile ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???.
Usage:- the sudden gaiety of children’s laughter

8.       Word: Halcyon
Happy, Joyful, Carefree, ???????
Hello ???
???? 2 ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? Hello ??? Hello ??? ???? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??.

9.       Idyllic
Extremely Happy, Peaceful
Idle ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???.
Usage:- an attractive hotel in an idyllic setting

10.   Jaunty
????, Cheerful, Lively
Joint Family
Joint Family ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ???, ?? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ??
Showy, Gay, Airy, Finical
Usage:- There was no mistaking that jaunty walk

Word: Abortive
????, Failing To Produce The Intended Result
?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ???? Paper ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?????.
Fruitless, Rudimentary, Miscarrying, Sterile, Abortion
an abortive attempt to overthrow the government

2.       Word: Abrogate
To Officially End A Law, Cancel, ???? ????
?? Ro (????) Gate (??????)
?? Supreme Court ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?? Supreme Court ?? Law ?? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??.
Suspend, Waive, Terminate, Repeal, Obliterate
a proposal to abrogate temporarily the right to strike

3.       Word: Bequest
????? ??? ?? ????, The Act Of Giving Or Leaving Personal Property By A Will
??? ?? ?? Request ???? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ????.
Gift, Devise, Fideicommissum, Donation, Willing
her $135,000 was the largest bequest the library ever has received

4.       Word: Belligerent
?????????, Inclined Or Eager To Fight; Hostile Or Aggressive
?????? Rent
????????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ?? ??? Rent ?? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??.
Contentious, Pugnacious, Bellicose, Warlike, Antagonistic
a bull-necked, belligerent old man

5.       Word: Cantankerous
??????, Bad-Tempered, Argumentative, And Uncooperative
Cantt Tank
Army Cantt Tanks ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???
Ugly, Contentious, Malicious, Ill-Tempered, Perverse
a crusty, cantankerous old man

6.       Word: Capitulate
?????????? ????, ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????
?? ?? ???? ?? Capital ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ?? ????.
Surrender, Agree
the patriots had to capitulate to the enemy forces.
7.       Word: Daunt
????????? ????, To Abate The Courage Of; Discourage
???? ???? ?? Don't Do This ???? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ??.
Appall, Dismay, Dishearten, Conquer, Overcome
some people are daunted by technology

8.       Word: Debacle
???????, A Sudden, Disastrous Collapse, Downfall, Or Defeat; A Rout
?? ??????
?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????.
the economic debacle that became known as the Great Depression

9.       Word: Elucidate
???????? ????, ?????? ?????, Make (Something) Clear; Explain
Lucy - Date
Lucy ?? ???? ????? ?? ??? Date ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ??.
Illuminate, Explicate, Demonstrate, Clarify, Interpret
work such as theirs will help to elucidate this matter

10.   Word: Emancipate
?????? ????, Set Free
???? ?? ???
?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ??.
Manumit, Free, Liberate
the citizen must be emancipated from the obsessive secrecy of government.

1.       Word: Knack
??????, ??????
??? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?? Neck ???? ??.
Knickknack, Facility, Skill, Toy, Crack
she got the knack of it in the end

2.       Word: Lachrymose
????? ????
???? ????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ???
she was pink-eyed and lachrymose

3.       Word: Majestic
??????, ??????????
Magic + Stick
Magician ?? ???? Magic Stick ?? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????.
Pompous, Imperial, Sublime, Magnificent, Dignified
watching majestic eagles soar along the Mississippi

4.       Word: Nasty
Highly Unpleasant, ?????
Nestle Tea ???? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ??.
Gross, Spiteful, Drizzling, Dangerous, Unpropitious
plastic bags burn with a nasty, acrid smell

5.       Word: Nubile
???? ?? ?????, (Of A Girl Or Young Woman) Sexually Mature; Suitable For Marriage
?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??.
he employed a procession of nubile young secretaries

6.       Word: Obese
Grossly Fat Or Overweight
? ????
? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??.
Fleshy, Fad, Fat

7.       Word: Painstaking
????????, Studious, Assiduous
Pain Taking
???????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? Pain ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? Take ?? ???? ???
Meticulous, Elaboration, Attentive, Industrious, Careful
painstaking attention to detail

8.       Word: Quandary
??????, ??????, A State Of Uncertainty Or Perplexity
??? Dairy
??? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? Dairy ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????.
Doubt, Perplexity, Predicament, Uncertainty
Kate is in a quandary

9.       Word: Ramification
?????? ??? ??????? ????
?????? ???
?????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ??
any change is bound to have legal ramifications

10.   Word: Platitude
?????? ???, ???? ???? ???
Plate ??? ???
Plate ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??.
Saying, Truism, Triteness, Commonplace
she began uttering liberal platitudes

1.    Pellucid : ( ????????, ??????)  
Meaning: A sentence that teaches a new vocabulary word should always be pellucid, that is, its style and meaning should be easily understandable so that you can derive the definition from the sentence.

2.    Exegesis: (???????? , ??????? )
Meaning: If your teacher gives an explanation of a difficult text you are reading, she is giving you an exegesis on it. An exegesis is a critical look at a text.

3.    WRATH (?????)
Meaning: Wrath means the same as anger.
Example: He incurred the wrath of the authorities in speaking out against government injustices.

Meaning: A tyranny is a cruel, harsh, and unfair government in which a person or small group of people have power over everyone else.
Example: Self – expression and individuality are the greatest weapons against tyranny.

5.    IMPETUOUS (???????, ?????)
Meaning: If you describe someone as impetuous, you mean that they are likely to act quickly and suddenly without Thinking or being careful.
Example: He was young and impetuous.

6.    Malaise: (????????? , ?????? , ?????? )
Meaning: If you are experiencing malaise, chances are you are feeling blue or looking green. Malaise is a slump; you're not feeling your best — either mentally or physically.

7.    Fructify: (????? ????? , ????? ???? )
Meaning: A newly planted apple tree can take years to fructify, but when it does there will be plenty of apples to go around. To fructify is to “produce fruit,” or “become fruitful.”

8.    Saturnine: (?????, ??????????, ???? )
Meaning: Medieval alchemists ascribed to the planet Saturn a gloomy and slow character. When people are called saturnine, it means they are like the planet––gloomy, mean, scowling. Not exactly life of the party.
9.    INGENIOUS (???, ?????)
Meaning: Something that is ingenious is very clever and involves new ideas, methods, or equipment.
Example: a truly ingenious invention.

10.   PERPETUAL (??????)
Meaning: A perpetual feeling, state, or quality is one that never ends or changes.
Example: the creation of a perpetual union.

(1) (i) Allusions ( ????? )
Meaning:  Indirect reference
Example : The poem is full of allusions.
(ii) Illusion (???? , ?? )
Meaning: a deceptive show
Example: Indian mythology regards the material world as an illusion.

(2) (i) Ail (????? ????)
Meaning: to be ill
Example: What ails the Industry is to be sorted out? 
(ii) Ale  (????)
Meaning: a drink
Example: He has gone to the ale – house.

(3)  (i) Braise
Meaning: cook with oil and water
Example:  I like braised cabbage.
(ii) Brays (???, ??? ?? ???? )
Meaning: loud, harsh cry of donkey
Example: A donkey is braying.
(4) Canter (?????? , ???? ???? ???????)
Meaning: a moderate gallop
Example: When a horse canters, it moves at a speed that is slower than a gallop but faster than a trot. 
(ii) Cantor (????)
Meaning: singer
Example: an official who sings liturgical music and leads prayer in a synagogue.

(5) (i) Eyelet (?????)
Meaning:  small hole for laces
Example: My shoes have eight eyelets.

(6) Farther (???)
Meaning: more distant
Example: Delhi is farther from Alwar in a comparison to Jaipur.
(ii) Further (??? ??)
Meaning: next
Example: Please settle the case without any further delay.

(7) (i)  Fain (???????????????)
Meaning: gladly
Example:  She would fain on seeing me.
(ii) Feign (???? ????)
Meaning: pretend
Example: When his boss scolded him, he feigned as a deaf.

(8) (i) Gaff (????)
Meaning: a barbed spear
Example: A gaff is a pole with a point or hook at one end, which is used for catching large fish.

(ii) Gaffe (????????? , ???? ??? )
Meaning: a stupid mistake
Example: He made an embarrassing gaffe at the convention last weekend.

(9) (i) Hammock  (?????)
Meaning:  rope bed
Example: A hammock is a piece of strong cloth or netting which is hung between two supports and used as a bed.
(ii) Hummock (???? ??????)
Meaning: low rounded hill
Example: A hummock  is a small raised area of ground, like a very small hill.

(10) (i) Hew  (?????)
Meaning: to chop 
Example: He fell, peeled and hewed his own timber.
(ii) Hue (???)
Meaning: a colour
Example:  The same hue will look different indifferent light.

1.    Ravenous(adj): extremely hungry (??????)
Key : Ravan
Usage: A ravenous appetite

2.    Recalcitrant (n): stubborn (??????)
Usage: a recalcitrant child.

3.    Redolent(adj): smelling strongly of something (????????)
Usage: The office was having redolent of furniture polish.

4.    Refrain (v): resist; to stop oneself doing something
Usage: He refrained himself from cigarettes.

5.    Rife(adj): full or widespread (???? ???)
Usage: An area where crime is rife.

6.    Ruminate(v): to think deeply; to meditate (????? ????)
Usage: Ruminating on a serious issue.

7.    Rankle(v): to irritate; to cause angry feeling
Usage: This incident happened twenty years ago, but it still rankles in my mind.

8.    Reticent(adj):  not showing his thoughts readily (??? ???? ????)
Usage: The manager was reticent about his plans.

9.    Reverie(n): day dream; lost in pleasant thoughts
Usage: He was in deep reverie when I knocked the door.

10.  Rabid(adj): violent & extreme (of feeling)
Usage: Rabid hate against Pakistan.

1) Avert : to turn away or aside
Key : a hurt
Example : a hurt candidate always try to keep him aside from others after failing in competitive exams.

2) Alienation : withdrawn in affection
Key : alien nation
Example : an alien from other nation withdrew his name in affection of general candidates not getting chance in bank exams :D

3) Cynicism : a distrustful attitude
Key : sign
Example : the broker seemed to be distrustful that's why I asked him to sign the agreement first.

4) Draconian : very severe, cruel, harsh
Key : dracula
Example : bas naam (key) hi kafi hai...hai na dosto :D

5) Frayed : To unravel, ??????, combat
Key : pray
Example : pray to god to combat your fear of failure.

6) Malpractice : improper or ethical conduct by a official person
Key : mal(????) practice
Example : key ?? ???? unlock by urself :p... sab kaam mai hi karu.

7) Recompense : Compensate for something bad
Key : ?? ???? ( little money)
Example : ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??????

8) Resurrection : the act of arising from the dead and becoming alive again
Key : sur-reaction (???? ???? ???) ????
Example : with melodious notes one can even turn the dead into alive

9) Riddle : Problem of an intellectual nature
Key : idli... haan haan idli...dosa wala idli...bilkul thik samjhe tum log..
Example : i was very puzzeled at first how to make an awesome idli.

10) Palpable : noticeable, obvious
Key : payable
Example : u notice (buy) only those things that are under payable limit.

1.WORD: CIRCUMSPECT( ?????? , ?????? , ????? )
Synonyms: Cautions
Meaning: If you are circumspect, you are cautious in what you do and say and do not take risks.
Example: The banks should have been more circumspect in their dealings.

2.WORD: CONTIGUOUS (??? ??? )
Synonyms: Adjoining
Meaning: Things that are next to each other or touch each other.
Example: Its vineyards are virtually contiguous with those of Ausone.

3.WORD: PREPOSTEROUS ( ??????? , ???? )
Synonyms: Absurd
Meaning: If you describe something as preposterous, you mean that is extremely unreasonable and foolish.
Example: The whole idea was preposterous.

4.WORD: DELECTATION (??????? )
Synonyms: Entertainment
Meaning: If you do something for someone’s delectation, you do it to give them enjoyment or pleasure.
Example: She makes scones and cakes for the delectation of visitors.

5.WORD: PROTAGONIST (??? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???????)
Meaning: Someone who is a protagonist of an idea or movement is a supporter of it.
Example: The main protagonists of their countries’ integration into the world market.

6.WORD: DISCREET (????????)
Meaning: If you are discreet, you are polite and careful n what you do or say, because you want to avoid embarrassing or offending someone.
Example: They were gossipy and not always discreet.

7. WORD: DILAPIDATED (??????, ????)
Synonyms: dilapidated
Meaning:  A building that is dilapidated is old and in a generally bad condition.

8.WORD: INFERNAL (???????)
Synonyms: Devilish
Meaning: Infernal is used to emphasize that something is very annoying or unpleasant.
Example: The post office is shut, which is an infernal bore.

9.    WORD: REPRISAL (????????)
Synonyms: Retaliation
Meaning: If you do something to a person a reprisal, you hurt or punish them because they have done something violent or unpleasant.
Example:Witnesses are unwilling to testify through fear of reprisals.

10. WORD: WAN ( ????? , ??? ??? )
Synonyms: Tired
Meaning: If you describe someone as wan, you mean that they look pale and tired.
Example: He looked wan and tired.

(1)  (i) Braise
Meaning: cook with oil and water
Example:  I like braised cabbage.
(ii) Brays (???, ??? ?? ???? )
Meaning: loud, harsh cry of donkey
Example: A donkey is braying.

(2) Canter (?????? , ???? ???? ???????)
Meaning: a moderate gallop
 Example: When a horse canters, it moves at a speed that is slower than a gallop but faster than a trot.
(ii) Cantor (????)
Meaning: singer
Example: an official who sings liturgical music and leads prayer in a synagogue.

(3) (i) Eyelet (?????)
Meaning:  small hole for laces
 Example: My shoes have eight eyelets.

(4) Farther (???)
Meaning: more distant
Example: Delhi is farther from Alwar in a comparison to Jaipur.
(ii) Further (??? ??)
Meaning: next
Example: Please settle the case without any further delay.

(5) (i)  Fain (???????????????)
Meaning: gladly
Example:  She would fain on seeing me.
(ii) Feign (???? ????)
Meaning: pretend
Example: When his boss scolded him, he feigned as a deaf.

(6) (i) Gaff (????)
Meaning: a barbed spear
Example: A gaff is a pole with a point or hook at one end, which is used for catching large fish.
(ii) Gaffe (????????? , ???? ??? )
Meaning: a stupid mistake
Example: He made an embarrassing gaffe at the convention last weekend.

(7) (i) Hammock  (?????)
Meaning:  rope bed
Example: A hammock is a piece of strong cloth or netting which is hung between two supports and used as a bed.
(ii) Hummock (???? ??????)
Meaning: low rounded hill
Example: A hummock  is a small raised area of ground, like a very small hill.

(8) (i) Hew  (?????)
 Meaning: to chop
Example: He fell, peeled and hewed his own timber.
(ii) Hue (???)
Meaning: a colour
Example:  The same hue will look different indifferent light.

(9) (i) Hoard (??? ????)
Meaning: store
 Example: They have begun to hoard food and sugar.
(ii) Horde  (????)
Meaning: a great many people
Example: This attracted hordes of tourists to Las Vegas.

(10) (i) Indite (????)
Meaning: to compose
Example: Though he indited the letter carefully, yet it was not liked by the chairman.
(ii) Indict (?????? ?????)
Meaning:  to accuse
Example: He was indicted for theft and murder

1) Assimilate : ??????

Key : sammilit (????????)
Example : we have to assimilate the new pattern to crack sbi po this time.

2) Clemency : ???

Key : ?? ??
Example : SBI walo k ?? ?? ??? samapt   ho chuki hai

3) Clique : ???, ??

Key : click
Example : this time BA ka ??? SBI PO zarur click karega

4) Benevolent : ????????

Key : ???? ??? ( vole - nt 
Example : ( vole - nt ) ji bahot ???????? hai BA walo ko zarur SBI PO bana denge.

5) Extol : ??????

Key : extra lol
Example : Hum sb k SBI PO banne k bad Shruti mam v BA pe EXTRA LOL post karegi...

6) Inundate : ??? ????

Key : on date
Example : aj kal k date pe ( on date ) cut off ki ??? ???? aam baat hai.

7) Propensity : ?????????

Key : pen city
Example : sab ki ????????? yehi hai aj kal k jis city me hum SBI PO ka exam denge usi jaga se PEN lenge.

8) Replenish : ??? ?? ????

Key : replan
Example : maine SBI PO 2015 ka form ??? ?? ???? ka replan kia

9) Steadfast : ?????, ?????

Key : speed-fast
Example : maine jaldi se ( fast ) isi bar sbi po banne ka decision ????? kr lia

10) Unwitting : ??????

Key : a-new-thing
Example : SBI PO K new thing ( exam pattern)  se av v kuch log ?????? hai

1.   Woeful
Causing Sorrow Or Misery, ????
Wo - Full
?? Full ???? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???.
Unhappy, Afflicted, Depressed, Miserable, Lamentable
her face was woeful

2.   Mandate
????? ???? ????, Order, Warrant, Commission
Men, Date
Men ?? Date ?? ???? ?? Order Women ?? ???? ???
Commission, Bidding
a mandate to seek the release of political prisoners

3.   Maudlin
?????, Effusively Or Tearfully Sentimental
Modeling ???? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???? ???
Tearful, Fuddled
the drink made her maudlin

4.    Semblance 
???, A Representation; A Copy
Seen (?????) Balance (?????)
??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ????
Figure, Appearance, Form, Similitude, Likeness
she tried to force her thoughts back into some semblance of order

5.   Yearn
????? ????, To Have A Strong, Often Melancholy Desire
??? (Friend)
???? ????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??
Vex, Pain, Mourn, Lon
they yearned to go home

6.   Affliction
????, ??????, A Condition Of Pain, Suffering, Or Distress
?? ?? Election
???? Election ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????
Sorrow, Visitation, Hardship, Calamity, Pain
a crippling affliction of the nervous system

7.   Paragon
????? ??? ????? Paragon ?? ?? ????? ????? ???
Parallel, Model, Queen, Rival, Compare
it would have taken a paragon of virtue not to feel viciously jealous

8.   Exodus
?????, ????????
110 (?? ?? ??)
???????? ???? ???? ???? ??? 110 ????? ???.

9.   Unkempt
??????????, Not Properly Maintained
Un (????) Camp (????)
????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????????? ???? ??? ???? ??
Shaggy, Unpolished, Fig, Disheveled
they were unwashed and unkempt

10. Utopia
?????-?????, An Imagined Place Or State Of Things In Which Everything Is Perfect

1.    Trite
Lacking Power To Evoke Interest Through Overuse Or Repetition; Hackneyed
Use of Key: -
 ??????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????  ???? ?????? ????? Tight ??? ??? ???
Common, Hackneyed, Commonplace, Stale
this point may now seem obvious and trite.

2.    Wistful
Wistful - Showing Pensive Sadness, ????
Wish -Full
Use of Key: -
?? ???? ?? Wish Fullfill ???? ???? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??.
Melancholy, Wishful, Contemplative, Pensive, Musing
a wistful smile

3.    Musty
???, ????, Having A Stale, Moldy, Or Damp Smell
Use of Key: -
?? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???.
Rank, Mold, Dull, Moldy, Heavy
a dark musty library filled with old books

4.    Motley
??? ??? ??, Various
??? ??
Use of Key: -
???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??.
Dappled, Dress, Mixture, Party-Colored, Composite
a motley crew of discontents and zealots

5.   Indigenous
Native, ???????
India ??? ????
Use of Key: -
India ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ???.
Inherent, Native, Inborn, Aboriginal, Innate
the indigenous peoples of Siberia

6.    Infallible
????, ????? ???? ? ??
Infall (?? ??? Fall ?? ?? ???? ??)
Use of Key: -
?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? Fall ???? ???? ?? ???? ??.
 Oracular, Inerrable, Indubitable, Unerring
doctors are not infallible

7.    Decrepitude
??????? ?? ????????
A State Of Deterioration Due To Old Age Or Long Use
Dec (December) Repitude (?????)
Use of Key: -
My Grandfather Died In December Due To ????? And ??????? ?? ????????.
he had passed directly from middle age into decrepitude

8.   Gratuitous
Given Or Done Free Of Charge, ????????
Great Tute (Tution)
Use of Key: -
Great ??? Free ??? ?? Tution ????? ???? ???.
Free, Groundless, Baseless, Unnecessary, Unfounded
gratuitous violence

9.    Piety
The Quality Of Being Religious Or Reverent, ????? ?????
Use of Key: -
Ayushi  ?? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????.
Religion, Holiness, Duty, Obedience, Godliness
acts of piety and charity

10.  Upbraid
To Reprove Sharply; Reproach, ??? ?????
?? Bread
Use of Key: -
?? Bread ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???
Reproach, Contumely, Exprobrate, Censure, Chide
he was upbraided for his slovenly appearance

Grammar Tips GRAMMAR TIP 1
Possessive case of a noun (nouns with 's) is used with living things. 
Example : Mohan' s cap, Ram's school, sister's right
Incorrect : This room's carpet must be changed.
Correct : The carpet of this room must be changed. (Room is a lifeless thing)

Sometimes 's is wrongly put in the place of preposition.
Incorrect : This author's book is not good. (Book possessed by this author) 
Correct : The book of this author is not good. (Book written by this author)

Double possessives should not be used.
Incorrect : My mother's brother's daughter came. 
Correct : The daughter of the brother of my mother came.

In the case of 'somebody else', 'everyone else ',' anybody else' etc., 's is put after else.
Incorrect : This is somebody's else job. 
Correct : This is somebody else's job.

When two nouns are joined by 'and' then 'apostrophe s' ('s) is added to both if we want to denote the possession of both & to last if we denote joint possession. 
Incorrect : Suzy's and Juicy's father was present. 
Correct : Suzy and Juicy's father was present. 

When we speak of two things of the same class, the word 'other' should not be left out.
Incorrect : Neither his brother nor any member of the family helped him. 
Correct : Neither his brother nor any other member of the family helped him.


Present Indefinite 
Verb form I [ s, es] 
He works hard.

Present Continuous 
is/am/are + verb form I + ing 
He is working hard.

Present Perfect 
has/have + verb form III 
He has worked hard.

Present Perfect Continuous 
has/have + been + verb form I + ing 
He has been working hard.


Past Indefinite 
verb form II [ did + verb form I] 
He worked hard.

Past Continuous 
was/were + verb form I + ing 
He was working hard.

Past Perfect 
had + verb form III 
He had worked hard.

Past Perfect Continuous 
had + been + verb form I + ing 
He had been working hard.


Future Indefinite 
will/shall + verb form I 
He will work hard.

Future Continuous 
will/shall + be + verb form I + ing 
He will be working hard.

Future Perfect 
will/shall + have + verb form III 
He will have worked hard for 20 years before he retires.

Future Perfect Continuous 
will/shall + have + been + verb form I + ing 
He will have been working hard for more than 8 hours.

Words are divided into different kinds or classes according to the work they do in a sentence. These kinds or classes are known as Parts of Speech. They are eight in number:
1. Noun
2. Pronoun
3. Verb
4. Adjective
5. Adverb
6. Preposition
7. Conjunction
8. Interjection.
What is noun?
Noun is a word used to name a person, place or thing.
For example:
Rama was an epic king.

Kinds of Noun
1. Common Noun
A common noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind. For example;
I write with a pen.
The student asked me a few questions.

2. Proper Noun
A proper noun is the name of a particular person or place.
For example:
Ramu is a wise fellow.
Patna lacks basic civic amenities.

Rule: Proper nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning.
Incorrect: Earlier the capital of india was in calcutta.
Correct: Earlier the capital of India was in Calcutta.

Rule: Proper nouns are sometimes used as common nouns.
Incorrect: LK Advani is today regarded as Sardar
Patel of India.
Correct: LK Advani is today regarded as the Sardar Patel of India.

Rule: In this case proper nouns are always preceded by articles.
She is a Lata Mangeshkar.
Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.

3. Collective Noun
A Collective noun is the name of a group of persons or things. For example army, committee, crowd, fleet, flock, herd, jury, mob, parliament, team.

Rule: A collective noun usually takes a singular verb and is substituted by a singular pronoun.
Incorrect: The jury were unanimous in their opinion.
Correct: The jury was unanimous in its opinion.

Rule: A collective noun takes a plural verb and is substituted by a plural pronoun when the individuals of which it is composed are thought of net behaving as a single unit
Incorrect: The jury was divided in its opinions.
Correct: The jury were divided in their opinions.

4. Abstract Noun
An abstract noun is usually the name of a quality, action or state considered apart from the object ( which is usually a common noun and often qualified by an adjective) to which it belongs. For example:
Innocence is integral to a child.
Love knows no bound.

5. Material Noun
A material noun is the name of a material ( matter from which a thing is made). For example:
Cotton is the source of natural fibre.
Milk constitutes a nutritious food.

Rule: A material noun does not take an article (a, an, the) before it.
Incorrect: The tobacco is a cash crop.
Correct: Tobacco is a cash crop.

Rule: It takes articles when treated as common nouns.
Incorrect: They offered me glass of water.
Correct: They offered me a glass of water.
Numbers are of two kinds-
(1) Singular Number
(2) Plural Number
Generally while changing singular noun to plural we add s, es in the end.
For example
On the surface some nouns appear to be singular but in meaning they are treated as plural.
For example,
cattle, clergy, people, children, police, poultry
Incorrect: The peasantry has always stood as rockstars for the development of a country.
Correct: The peasantry have always stood as rockstars for the development of a country.
Some nouns look like plural but are always used as singular. For example,
Subjects - Mathematics, economics, physics, ethics, politics, classics.

Rule: When these subjects denote qualities or property, they are used in plural sense. For example,
Incorrect: His mathematics is weak.
Correct: His mathematics are weak.
Diseases - Rickets, AIDS, diabetes, mumps, measles. Some other nouns - News, gallows, summons, innings.
Some nouns are plural in form and in meaning, normally they are instruments or dress articles which have two parts and make a kind of pair. Do not use a/an before these nouns.
For example,
Spectacles, tongs, scissors, pincers, bellows, trousers, drawers, breaches, pants, knickers, pantaloons.
Certain other nouns - caves, riches (valuables), alms, funds, proceeds (profit), annals (record).
Incorrect : I bought a trousers yesterday.
Correct :I bought a pair of trousers yesterday.
Some nouns are always singular and used as singular only. For example Poetry, information, machinery, dust, furniture, dirt, traffic, money, music. Some nouns have one meaning in singular form and another in plural.

Paragraph Jumbles
Parajumbles are in important part of most competitive exams. In various management entrance exams we have seen 3 basic types of parajumbles:

• 4 sentence type
• 5 sentence type
• 6 sentence type : Usually when there are 6 sentences given, the 1st sentence and the 6th sentence are given in the correct position and he 4 sentences between these are jumbled up.

Parajumbles are not necessarily a test of your language skills. The good thing about parajumbles is that even if you are otherwise weak in English, that is if you find RC, vocabulary or grammar a challenge, you can still score extremely will in parajumbles. This is because you need to be as mechanical as possible in your approach.

The ideal approach for solving parajumbles is a mechanical one. Most people lose focus by reading the statements given over and over again. Sometimes, it is next to impossible to make out which sentence follows which one and all the options look equally correct. The greatest mistake is to try and read the parajumble in the sequence given in each option. Solving all options completely will only confuse you and waste a lot of time.

The best way to solve a parajumble is to try and identify mandatory pairs. A mandatory pair is a sequence that you know cannot exist in any other order. There are many types of mandatory pairs. But there is only one basic tool to identify mandatory pairs – read mechanically and look only for keywords that will help you form a sequence or connection.

Types of Mandatory Pairs:

1. Names, proper nouns and pronouns:
Sometimes we can identify mandatory pairs or a longer sequence by the help of the names, proper nouns and pronouns used.
For instance:
A. Both were very angry.
B. Singh accused Jogi of corruption.
C. Raman Singh ordered enquiry against his predecessor Ajit Jogi.

It is clear from the above example that statement C, which has the full names of both persons, should precede the other two statements. Statement B uses only the second names of the concerned people. And statement A substitutes the names with the pronoun “both”. Thus, A should follow B, and B should follow C. Therefore, the correct order is CBA.

2. Cause-effect:
There are instances where a clear cause- effect relationship may exist in the form of a mandatory pair or may run through the entire parajumble.

For example:
A. While Sachin is a great batsman, Kambli’s name is often associated with scams.
B. Sachin Tendulkar and Vinod Kambli are good friends.
C. As a result, their relationship has become strained. 

Here it is easy to see that the use of “as a result” in statement C, stablishes a cause and effect relationship. The correct sequence therefore, is BAC.

3. Chronology:
At times you can see logical chain of events in the parajumble. It could also be in the form of a set of instructions to be followed in a certain order. If you look for keywords associated with the sequence, you can easily figure out the right order.

For instance:
A. In order to take full advantage of the ongoing city sale you must possess a good credit card.
B. It would also be nice to have friends to accompany you.
C. Secondly, you should have a vehicle of your own.
As you can see in the above example, statement C follow statement A. A gives the first and C gives the second condition. The use of “also” in B tells you that it should follow C. Therefore, ACB is the correct order.

4. Time reference:
Some question have a statement that refers to a point in time. The reference maybe in the past, present or future. Accordingly, you can decide its place in the sequence.

For example:
A. In the future perhaps, we may live on Mars.
B. During the Stone Age, man lived in caves.
C. Presently, man lives in concrete jungles.

The use of “Stone Age” in statement B, “presently” in C and “future” in A make it easy for us to identify the sequence. The past will always come first, followed by the present and then the future. The correct sequence then is, BCA. 

5. Obvious openers:
You may sometimes come across statements that are obvious openers, i.e. it is obvious that the parajumble will begin with those statements. These statements can be definitions, universal truths or philosophical statements.
For instance:
A. The stratosphere is one of the layers of the atmosphere.
B. It is the upper portion of the atmosphere, a nearly isothermal layer (layer of constant temperature) that is located above the troposphere.
C. It extends from its lower boundary of about 6 to 17 km (4 to 11miles) altitude to its upper boundary (the stratopause) at about 50 km (30 miles).
It is clear to see that “it” in B and C refers to the “stratosphere” in statement. A. Statement A is thus an obvious opener and the correct order is ABC.

6. Obvious conclusions:
Sometimes, you can easily figure out the conclusion in the parajumble. The conclusion helps to eliminate choices or to identify a mandatory pair.

For example:
A. On the mantelpiece were two clocks, some dogs, brass candlesticks and a tinted photograph of Annie.
B. You looked at the weed-grown vegetable garden through a stuffed fox’s legs, over a partridge’s head, along the red-paint-stained breast of a stiff wild duck.
C. The best room smelt of moth-balls and fur and damp and dead plants and stale, sour air. Two glass cases on wooden coffin-boxes lined the window wall.
D. It was obvious that the room was rarely used.
You can see that C introduces the room, A and B further describe it and D concludes the paragraph.

7. Keywords:
Words like – so, therefore, however, hence, thus, moreover, but, because, nevertheless, yet, etc. – also help identify mandatory pairs.
For instance:
A. Yet, the cable guys control two-thirds of the market.
B. Telephone firms are now cutting down their prices to complete and grab their share of the internet market.
C. Cable net connections are expensive.
D. This is because there is a growing demand for high speed internet access.

It is clear from the above example that CA is a mandatory pair. C puts across a point that cable net connections are expensive. The use of “yet” in A, shows that despite being expensive, they hold a major share in the market. The use of “because” in D gives a reason for this phenomenon. Thus, C, A and D are connected to each other in that order. Statement B gives the effect of the phenomenon on the telephone firms. Hence, CADB is the correct sequence.

8. General to specific:
Sometimes one gets confused about whether to move from general to specific or from specific to general.

For instance: 
A. He made an interesting comment about our store’s price policy.
B. He said that we could offer discounts and incentives to encourage people to buy in fewer quantities but to buy more frequently.
C. Discounts could vary from 10 to 15 per cent on every purchase.
D. The lesser the quantity, the more frequently customers will have to visit the store. The more frequent the visits, the more incentives they can earn.

In this case the confusion could be between BCD and BDC. Here, we will move from general to specific. C is a specific example for D and not vice versa. Therefore, the correct sequence is ABDC.

In order to master parajumbles it is important to understand their structure. Let’s slowly build up on the concept of ‘parajumbles’. Go through the following solved examples and follow the instructions given.

1. Questions can become easy to solve if you pay more attention to only the first few words of every statement.
For instance:
A. Although, like the Talapadas, the Pardeshis also claim to be Rajputs and Kshatriyas, most of them have not yet adopted traditional Rajput names for their lineages.
B. Only recently a few lineages have begum to patronize the Vahivancha Barots, who have recorded their remembered shallow genealogies and grafted them on to mythical genealogies.
C. Each Pardeshi lingeage is known after its village of origin.
D. The latter provide them with Rajput clan names, but they rarely use them in normal life.

In the above case, by reading only the highlighted words, you can clearly see a relationship between CB. C talks about Pardeshi lineages and B continues as it starts with ‘only recently a few lineages…………’ Thus only by reading the first few words of every statement you can establish at least one mandatory pair and usually eliminate at least 2 choices.

2. Let’s now learn to associate keywords, ideas and form sequences. Look at the following examples:
A. Many Western observers, and under their influence many Indian scholars and social critics also, have written that India was almost completely a stagnant country, without true history, till she came into life-giving contact with Western civilisation in the eighteenth century.
B. The so-called joint family is one such notable institution.
C. There is a well-established viewpoint which alleges that Hindu social institutions have had a blighting effect on India’s social and economic development.
D. They contend That the economy and society in this country, and indeed the India mind, had remained frozen for about two thousand years till the British conquest of India introduced a vital element of dynamism into the ‘native’ society.
In the above example it can be seen clearly that CB are mandatory pairs. C talks of the blighting effect Hindu social institutions have had on the Indian economy and society; and  B continues by saying that the joint family is one such institution. The ‘they’ in D, refers to the observers, scholars and critics in A. Therefore AD is also a mandatory pair. Thus the correct sequence is CBAD.

3. Now let’s learn to build up from small sequences to bigger ones.

I.  A. Such is the difficulty a carp faces in becoming a dragon.
B. Some are swept away by the by the strong currents, some fall prey to eagles, hawks, kites, and owls, and others are netted, scooped up or even shot with arrows by fishermen who line both banks of the falls.
In the above case, B describes the different difficulties and A obviously sums up the explanation as it starts with ‘such is the difficulty’. BA is then the mandatory sequence.

II. A. Minamoto and Taira were like two faithful watchdogs at the gates of the imperial palace.
B. They marvelled at the elegant parties of the court nobles and their ladies, just as monkeys in the trees are enraptured by the sight of the moon and the stars glittering in the sky.
C. They were eager to guard the emperor s humble mountain folk are to admire the full moon on the fifteenth night of the eighth month as it rises from behind the mountains.
Here, the ‘they’ in C clearly refers to the ‘two faithful watchdogs’ in A. Therefore AC is a mandatory pair. The correct sequence then is ACB.

III. A. The most important ones are the family and the school. 
B. Much of the anger that is publicly expressed against the hierarchy of caste-in the newspapers, on television, in conferences-is purposeless if not insincere.
C. Those who are serious about carrying the advance of equality further, particularly in the domain that I have discussed, must direct their attention to the institutions that are the real obstacles in the path of that advance.
D. Equality at least at the higher levels of society, can no longer be significantly advanced by attacking caste.
D introduces the fact that equality can no longer be established by attacking caste. B continues the point about anger against hierarchy if caste. The mandatory pair is DB and not BD because D is more general than B. C then goes on to identify the real obstacles and A names the most important ones. CA is therefore another mandatory sequence. The correct sequence then is DBCA.

IV. (i) The mighty warrior General Li Kuang, whose mother had been devoured by a tiger, shot an arrow at the stone he believed was the tiger.
A.  Later he came to be known as General Stone Tiger.
B. But once he realized it was only a stone, he was unable to pierce it again.
C. The arrow penetrated the stone all the way up to its feathers.
D. This story applies to you. Though enemies lurk in the wait for you, your resolute faith has forestalled great dangers before they could begin.
(ii) Realizing this, you must strengthen your faith more than ever.
I clearly introduces a story and A sums up that story. C and B figure in between. D talks about the relevance of the story and finds continuation in II. The correct sequence then is I-CBAD-II.

V. A. She had cherished hope-filed visions of America as a land of freedom and democracy.
B. Also, being a foreigner, she could not make herself understood well in English, and they treated her coldly. At the same time, her husband had become physically abusive, and a rift had grown between them.
C. Sadly, however, this woman’s dream had been shattered. Life with her in-laws was by no means easy financially.
D. She was not alone; many people in those days turned their eyes admiringly to America, imagining it as some sort of dream land.
E. Her sense of regret grew with each passing day. As her feelings of isolation and despair deepened, she would often stand crying on the beach, watching the crimson sun set into the sea beyond the horizon. 
F. The tears that streamed down her cheeks flooded her already wounded heart with an aching, empty coldness, thus intensifying her sorrow.

A is an obvious opener. It talks about her hopes and dreams about America. D continues the point and talks further about other women who had dreamt of America. C then mentions that her dream were sadly shattered. B adds more points about how her dreams were shattered. E talks about her sense of regret and F starts by talking of her consequent tears and sorrow. The correct sequence therefore is ADCBEF.

Now that you know the real tricks needed to crack parajumbles, attempt the following exercises on your own.

A preposition is a word placed before a noun (or a pronoun) to show in what relation the person or thing denoted by it stands to something else.

Kinds of Preposition
1) Simple Prepositions : They are the simple words used as prepositions. 
For example, at, by, for, from, in, of, off,on, out, over, through, till, to, under, up, with.
2) Compound Prepositions : They are generally formed by prefixing a preposition (usually a = on or be = by) to a
noun, an adjective or an adverb. 
For example,about, above, across, along, amidst, among, around, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, underneath, within, without.
3) Phrase Prepositions : When a group of words is used with the force of a single preposition, it is known as a phrase preposition.
For example, He succeeded in spite of obstacles.
4) Participial Prepositions: When the present participle of a verb acts as a preposition, it is known as a participle preposition.
For example, There have not been too many celebrations in recent times barring those happened after Diwali.

Rules based on frequent asked questions

Rule : In is used with names of countries and large towns; at is more often used when speaking of small towns and villages.
Incorrect: He lives at Germany.
Correct: He lives in Germany.

Rule : In and at are used in speaking of things at rest; to and into are used in speaking of things in motion.
Incorrect : This week the song jumped at the top of the charts.
Correct: This week the song jumped to the top of the charts.

Rule : Till is used of time and to is used of place.
Incorrect: The office will remain open to six in the evening.
Correct: The office will remain open till six in the evening.

Rule : With often denotes the instrument used by the agent.
Incorrect: The ball was hit by the bat.
Correct: The ball was hit with the bat.

Rule : Both since and from are used before a noun denoting some point of time. However, while since is preceded by a verb in the perfect tense, from is used with the
non-perfect tense.
Incorrect: India has been playing Test cricket from 1932.
Correct: India has been playing Test cricket since 1932.

Rule : While since or from is used with a point of time, for is used with a period of time.
Incorrect: The parcel has been lying here since 10 days.
Correct: The parcel has been lying here for 10 days.

Rule : Beside means by the side of while besides means in additions to.
Incorrect: He sat besides the chair.
Correct: He sat beside the chair.

Rule : Between is used for only two things or persons while among is used for more than two.
Incorrect: You have to choose among tea and coffee.
Correct: You have to choose between tea and coffee.

Rule : Above and below merely denote position while over and under also carry a sense of covering or movement.
Incorrect: The bird flew above the lake.
Correct: The bird flew over the lake.

Rule : During is used when we are talking about the time within which something happens. For is used when we are talking about how long something lasts.
Incorrect: There were few incidents of irregularity for the Emergency years.
Correct: There were few incidents of irregularity during the Emergency years.

Rule: The preposition “off” denotes “separation”, “at a distance from” or “far from” whereas the preposition “of” denotes cause, origin, quality, possession.
Incorrect: He put of his coat.
Correct: He put off his coat. (Separation)
Incorrect: He died off cancer.
He died of cancer. (Cause)

Rule : The word compare is followed by to when it shows that two things are alike. It is followed by with when we look at the ways in which two things are like and unlike each other.
Incorrect: Sanath Jayasuriya's batting may be compared with the sales of a useful book: they score fast right from the beginning.
Correct: Sanath Jayasuriya's batting may be compared to the sales of a useful book: they score fast right from the beginning.

Rule : When we simply speak of a thing having got better, we talk of an improvement in it. When we compare two things, the second of which is better than the first, we talk of an improvement on the first thing.
Incorrect: There has been an improvement on the weather.
Correct: There has been an improvement in the weather.

Rule : In means at the end of, while within means before the end of, the said time duration.
Incorrect: We left at 5 o'clock expecting to come back in an hour and watch the 6 o'clock movie.
Incorrect: We left at 5 o'clock expecting to come back within an hour and watch the 6 o'clock movie.

Some important points about prepositions
1. The words “superior”, “inferior”, “senior”, “junior” etc. take the preposition “to” with them.
Incorrect: Ram is senior than Mohan.
Correct: Ram is senior to Mohan.

2. The words “prefer”, “preferrable”, “preferred” also take the preposition “to” with them.
Incorrect: I prefer tea than coffee.
Correct: I prefer tea to coffee.

3. The words “inspite of” and “despite” share the same meaning. The only difference is that inspite takes the preposition “of” whereas despite does not take any preposition.
Incorrect: Despite of bad weather, he went to school.
Correct: Despite bad weather, he went to school.
In the same way, the word “consist” takes the preposition “of” whereas “comprise” does not take any preposition.
Incorrect: The classroom comprises of twenty students.
Correct: The classroom comprises twenty students.

Sentence Rearrangement
Rearrangement of sentences or paragraph anagrams is the most commonly seen question in the Banking exams and other competitive exams. It’s interesting to know that this question doesn’t examine any previously learnt concepts, neither is it based on any particular logic. What it tests is common sense and speed. Extensive practice is the key. However, I have a few strategies for all of you. Study them and use them in the exercise that follow and you’ll be comfortable with them. 

Paragraph jumbles questions are presented in different forms.
Four/ five sentences either numbered 1,2,3,4,5 or lettered a, b, c, d, e are given in a jumbled form. The sentences are followed by choices of four possible combinations of arrangements of these sentences. You have to choose the most logical order of arrangement of these sentences to form a meaningful, coherent paragraph. 
For example,
A. The managers are themselves parts of various hierarchies of managerial influence, coupled to one another by explicit and implicit codes of behaviour and information network.
B. Management science and MIS have introduced new elements of complexity into the manager’s world.
C. Management deals with complex social systems joined by physical and informational mechanisms to other social systems that are the responsibility of other managers.
D. If this seems to make the social system appear complex, it is so intended.
(1) DCAB
(2) ADCB
(3) DBAC
(4) CADB

 A set of six sentences is given, in which the first and the sixth sentences are fixed at their respective positions. The four sentences that falls between the first and the sixth sentences are presented in a jumbled form. You are asked to choose the logical order of sentences from the choices.
1. If the phenomenon of down gradation is understood and accepted, brands have to continuously seek options that offer better value to consumers.
A. Therefore, given an option, the consumer was willing to be satisfied by greater value from trusted brands rather than downgrade.
B. Tea in polypacks doubled their volume share between 1989 and 1991 in Bombay.
C. Biscuits in family packs witnessed phenomenal growth of such brands even during periods of inflation.
D. The onset of the down gradation phenomenon seems to be a good time to launch new products, or better still, create new sub-categories.
6. For instance, the more expensive gel toothpaste category upped its share in Bombay by six percent at the expense of popular and economy brands.
(1) BCAD
(2) CDAB
(3) ADBC
(4) DCBA

Strategy 1
Avoid reading the sentences closely; that is not required and is a waste of time. Inspect the choices; if each of the choices begins with different letters, identifying the sentence to begin the sequence leads to the correct answer.
The following example illustrates this.
1.Small companies that compete effectively tend to grow, and growth brings increasing complexity and specialization in each function.
A.Technologists talk about processes, new materials, and worry about prototype results and technical problems; as regards language and interests, they have little in common with marketing.
B.As the company grows it tends increasingly to fragment into separate functional islands, each trying to solve its own problems, each using its own special language and having its own priorities.
C.Marketing people, for instance, talk about market segmentation, market growth, promotions and product image, and worry about changes in share.
D.Production people talk and worry about industrial relations, people arriving on time, and plant and equipment breakdown and delays.
6.They in their turn have little in common with either marketing or the technologists who, they consider, live in ivory towers.
1. DACB             2. BCAD                 3. ACBD                4. CDAB 

In the above question, the choices begin with different letters. The best strategy then would be to inspect sentence 1 and to identify the sentence that logically follows 1
Sentence 1 deals with growth of companies and sentence B begins with the continuity phrase, as the company grows. Consequently, B has to follow 1 and the answer therefore is choice 2. You require minimum steps in arriving at the answer in such questions.
Strategy 2
In choices that are closely related, identify a mandatory pair of sentences (two sentences that should form a sequence).
A.This linking of politics and music is of course ancient and even Aristotle in his book ‘Politics’ said, “We may compare the best form of government to the most harmonious piece of music.”
B.Mixing metaphors, Mr. Clinton referred to the symphony so central to western music and said, “It is time both nations heard the musical compositions of each other and understood each other better.”
C.The oligarchic and despotic to the more violent tunes; and the democratic to the soft and gentler airs.
D.The US President was confident that if governments and people of the two democracies made a determined bid to understand each other’s perspectives scripts, they could create new symphonies.
E.Such attempts to secure symphony would be so much better than the individual bids for virtuoso improvisations and adherence to classical compositions.
1. BACDE              2. DCAEB                 3. DECAB               4. BDEAC
In the above question, observe that the choices are closely related. Two choices begin with D and the other two with B. In such cases avoid working from the first sentence; instead inspect the sentences quickly and identify a particular pair of sentences that are mandatory. In the above case EA is a mandatory sequence. Only choice 4 satisfies this condition, and therefore the most logical sequence.
Strategy 3
Look out for quick clues such as pronouns, conjunctions etc. in the beginning of sentences to help you establish a sequence.
E.g.1.As a senior economist associated with the reforms programme used to say, a sure indication that the new economic policy was succeeding would be when foreign investors start trekking to Delhi in the sweltering heat of May and June.
A.If nothing else, India Power ‘94 came as a welcome break to the power ministry; most of the participants had complimentary things to say about government policy.
B.And there were would-be entrants like the Hong Kong-based China Light and Power Company who had turned up armed with a fax from the power ministry listing available projects in India.
C.Were that the only yardstick, then judging by the attendance at India Power ‘94, at least the reforms in the power sector could be declared a success.
D.There were the familiar names – Enron, AES, Cogentrix, and Spectrum Technologies.
6.This was in striking contrast to the adverse comments the ministry had been attracting so far.
1. ADBC             2. BDCA                 3.CDBA              4. DBCA
In the above question, a smart test taker will quickly identify the phrase ‘ were that the only yardstick” in sentence C. This is a thought continuity of the idea in sentence 1 “ foreign investors trekking to Delhi……”. Consequently C has to follow 1; eliminate choices 1, 2, and 4.Choice 3 is the correct answer.
Strategy 4
In six sentences variety, work backward from sentence 6 if there is no obvious clue to work from sentence 1; many a time we overlook the hints that may be valuable
Let’s take a look at such an example.
1.A recent advertisement of Premier Instruments and Controls Ltd., a leading manufacturer of dashboard instruments, in a financial daily, summed it all up.
A.The fact is that executives from companies, ranging from Daimler Benz to General Motors, have been scouring the Indian countryside looking for suppliers of cheap components for products made in their European and American plants.
B.It obviously does not even have the time to make the investments required to set up a new plant.
C.Today, most Indian automobile component manufactures cannot produce enough to meet demand both domestic and international.
D.The company was soliciting spare capacities for the supply of intricate machines and sheet-metal components.
6.While some of them do find good deals, many have had to go back empty-handed.
1. ADCB            2. CBAD             3.BACD              4. DBCA
In the question given above, see that “them’ in sentence 6 refers to ‘executives’ referred to in sentence A. i.e. A precedes 6; choice 4 is the answer.

Subject Verb Agreement
Subject – Verb Agreement relates to number agreement (singular or plural) between the subject and the verb that follows it ……
e.g. The girl plays all day. (singular subject)
 The girls play all day. (plural subject)

There are two important exceptions to subject – verb agreement. Firstly, agreement only applies when the verb is in the present tense. In the past tense, there is no overt agreement between the subject and the verb.

 e.g. The girl played all day.
  The girls played all day.

And secondly, agreement applies only to third person subjects. There is no distinction between a first person singular subject and a first person plural subject.

 e.g. I play all day.
 We play all day.

The main principle is : Singular subjects need singular verbs : plural subjects need ; plural subjects need plural verbs. Some basic rules:

1. When subject of a sentence is composed of two or more nouns or pronouns connected by and, we use a plural verb.
 He and his friends are at the fair.
 This rule is not follow when two nouns refer to the same object.
 The wicket keeper and Captain was given the man of the match award.

2. When two or more singular nouns or pronouns are connected by or or nor, we use a singular verb.
 e.g. The paper or the pencil is in the desk.

3. When a compound subject contains both a singular and a plural noun or pronoun joined by or or nor, the verb should agree with the part of the subject that is nearer to the verb.
 e.g. Shivin or his friends run every day.
    His friends or Shivin runs every day.

4. Doesn’t is contraction of does not and should be used only with a singular subject. Don’t is a contraction of do not and should be used only with a plural subject. The exception to this rule appears in the case of the first person and second person pronouns I and you. With these pronouns the contraction don’t should be used.
 e.g.  She doesn’t like it.
    They don’t like it.

5. A phrase between the subject and the verb should not be misleading, the verb agrees with the subject, not with a noun or pronoun in the phrase.
 e.g. The captain, as well as his players, is anxious.
    The book, in parts, is boring.
    The building, with all its contents, is insured.

6. Each, each one, either, neither, everyone, everybody, anybody, nobody, somebody, some one and no one are singular and require a singular verb.
 e.g. Each of these books is good.
    Everybody knows him.
    Either is correct.

7. Nouns such as civics, mathematics, rupees and news require singular verbs.
 e.g. The news is on at eight.
 When talking about an amount of money, it requires a singular verb, but when referring to the rupees themselves, a plural verb is required.
 e.g. Five hundred rupees is a lot of money.
    Rupees are often used instead or Rupiahs in Nepal.

8. Nouns such as scissors, trousers, shears and shorts require plural verbs.
 e.g. These shears are dull.
    These shorts are made of cotton.

9. In sentences beginning with there is, there are, the subject follows the verb. Since there is not the subject, the verb agrees with what follows.
 e.g. There are many questions
    There is a question.

10. Collective nouns are words that imply more than one person but are considered singular and take a singular verb, such as : group, team, committee, class and family.
 e.g. The family has a long history of writers.
    The committee has prepared the agenda.

11. With, together with, including, accompanied by, in addition to, or as well do not change the number of the subject. If the subject is singular, the verb is too.
 e.g. The Chairman, including his team, is travelling to China.
    The boys, together with their friends, are going for a picnic.

12. The relative pronouns (who, whom, which, and that) are either singular or plural, depending on the words they refer to.
 e.g. The sales manager is good researcher who spends a great amount of time surfing the Web for information. 
    Subject : The sales manager  Verbs: is, spends

13. A few nouns can be either plural or singular, depending on whether they mean a group or Separate individuals. These words are rarely used as plurals in modern writing.
 e.g. 1.  The jury has decided unanimously.
     Subject: jury   Verb: is 
    2.  The jury are having an argument. 
     Subject: jury   Verb: are having

14. Do not be misled by a phrase that comes between the subject and the verb. The agrees with the
 subject, not with a noun or pronoun in the phrase.
 e.g. One of the boxes is open.
    The people who listen to music are few.

15. Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor require a singular verb as in Rule 1.
 e.g. Neither John nor Abraham is available.
    Either Bipasha or neelam is helping today with stage decoration.

16. When/is one of the two subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor, put it second and follow it with the singular verb am.
 e.g. Neither she nor I am going to the festival 

17. With words that indicate portions-percent, fraction, part, majority, some, all, none, remainder, and so forth – look at the noun in your ‘of phrase (object of the preposition) to determine whether to use a singular of plural verb. If the object of the preposition is singular, use a singular verb. If the object of the preposition is plural, use a plural verb.
 e.g. 1. Fifty percent of the pie has disappeared. (Pie is the object of the preposition of.)
    2. Fifty percent of the pies have disappeared.
    3. One-third of the city is unemployed.
    4. One-third of the people are unemployed.
 NOTE: Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions.
    5. All of the pie is gone.
    6. All of the pies are gone.
    7. Some of the pie is missing.
    8. Some of the pies are missing.

18. Use a singular verb with sums of money or periods of time.
 e.g. Ten dollars is a high price to pay.
    Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense.

Identifying the subject
Word groups often come between the subject and the verb. These word groups may contain a noun that at first appears to be the subject. Identify the word group between the subject and the verb in order to isolate the noun.
 e.g. The girl plays all day. (singular subject)
 e.g. The slaughter of pandas for their pelts have caused panda population to decline Drastically.  (Incorrect)
 The slaughter of pandas for their pelts has caused the panda population to decline drastically.  (Correct)

Thus, the subject is slaughter and not pandas or pelts.

Phrases beginning with the prepositions as well as, in addition to, accompanied by, and along with, do not make a singular subject plural.
 e.g. The Chief Minister, as well as his principal secretary, was shot.
 e.g. If a customer buys a burger, he or she has to pay service tax. (correct)
  If a customer buys a burger, they have to buy a parking ticket. (incorrect)

A Verb is a word that tells or asserts something about a person or thing. It tells about the person or thing in the state of (a) doing, (b) being or (c) being acted up on. Thus a verb is a doing or being word. 

Kinds of verbs : 
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
A Transitive verb is a verb that denotes an action which passes over from the doer or agent to an object, Transitive means passing over. For example, 
India won the World Cup.

An Intransitive verb is a verb that denotes an action which does not pass over to an object, or that expresses a state of an object, or that expresses a state of being. Intransitive means not passing over. For example,
The sun shines brightly.

Rule: When an intransitive verb is used in a causative sense, it becomes transitive.
1. He sat in a chair.
2. He sat me on chair. 

Rule: Verbs like, fall, lie, rise and sit are made transitive by a slight change in their spellings. The transitive is the causative of the corresponding intransitive verb. 
Incorrect: The poachers were caught yesterday when they fell trees illegally.
Correct : The poachers were caught yesterday when they felled trees illegally.

Verbs of Incomplete Predication
The intransitive verb which requires something to make the sense complete is called a verb of incomplete predication.
For example be, become, seem, grow, taste, appear. 
That which is required to make the sense (of these verbs) complete is known as the complement of the verb or the completion of the predicate. 
For example,
The family appears.

Rule: When the subjective complement is a noun (or a pronoun), it is in the same case as the subject, that is, in the nominative case.
For example
The lawyer called the witness a liar.

Rule: When the objective complement is a noun it is in the objective case in agreement with the object.

Subject-Verb Agreement : 
Language has its base in logic and harmony. The subject and the verb are the essential parts of a sentence. It is imperative that the verb agree with the subject in number and person.

Rule: Two or more singular subjects connected by and usually take a verb in the plural.
Incorrect: Computer and telecommunication has metamorphosed information technology.
Correct: Computer and telecommunication have metamorphosed information technology.

Rule: If two singular nouns refer to the same person or thing, the verb must be singular.
Incorrect : The poet and critic have been honoured.
Correct : The poet and critic has been honoured.

Rule: If two subjects together express one idea, the verb is in the singular.
Incorrect: Bread and butter are essential for one's life.
Correct: Bread and butter is essential for one's life.

Rule: If the singular subjects are preceded by each or every, the verb is usually singular.
Incorrect: Every man and woman in a family are responsible for the upbringing of a child.
Correct: Every man and woman in a family is responsible for the upbringing of a child.

Rule : Two or more singular subjects connected by or, nor, either ... or, neither... nor take a verb in the singular.
Incorrect: Either Manoj or Madhukar have the key to this problem.
Correct: Either Manoj or Madhukar has the key to this problem.

Rule: When the subjects, joined by or or nor are of different numbers, the verb must be plural, and the plural subject must be placed next to the verb.
Incorrect : Neither Rekha nor her friends was present at the party.
Correct : Neither Rekha nor her friends were present at the party.

Rule: When the subjects, joined by or or nor are of different persons, the verb agrees in person with the one nearest to it.
Incorrect : Either she or I pays the fees.
Correct : Either she or I pay the fees.

Error of Proximity: The verb is made to agree in number with a noun near it instead of with its proper subject. This is wrong and should be avoided.
Incorrect : The behaviour of the students were not proper.
Correct: The behaviour of the students was not proper.

Rule: Words joined to a singular subject by with, as well as, etc. are parenthetical. The verb should therefore be put in the singular.
Incorrect: The guru as well as his disciples are committed to celibacy.
Correct: The guru as well as his disciples is committed to celibacy.

Rule: Either, neither, each, everyone, many a must be followed by a singular verb.
Incorrect: Many a man have resigned in crisis.
Correct: Many a man has resigned in crisis.

Rule: When a plural noun denotes some specific quantity or amount considered as a whole, the verb is generally singular.
Incorrect: Five hours are too short a time to judge one's character.
Correct: Five hours is too short a time to judge one's character.

The Infinitive
Usually a verb is limited by the number and person of its subject.
For example,
He plays cricket.
They play cricket.

A verb, which is not limited by person and number as a verb that has a subject, is called the verb infinite or the infinitive. Infinitives are of two kinds. 
(1) Simple Infinitive and 
(2) Gerundial or Qualifying Infinitive.

(1) Simple Infinitive - when the infinitive is used like a noun.
(i) as the subject of a verb. To name is to give an identity.
(ii) as the object of a verb. I have decided to leave the place.
(iii) as the complement of a verb. Her hobby is to dance.
(iv) as the object of a preposition. He is about to go.
(v) as the complement of the object. She heard her weep.

(2) Gerundial or Qualifying Infinitive-when the infinitive is used for the following purposes:
(i) to qualify a verb. He slept to refresh himself.
(ii) to qualify an adjective. Tea is easy to prepare.
(iii) to qualify a noun. He has a point to make.
(iv) to qualify a sentence. To be very frank, I hate your smile.

Rule: The infinitive is used without to after verbs like help, watch, bid, dare, hear, let, make, need and see.
Incorrect : I bid him to quit the organisation.
Correct : I bid him quit the organisation.

Rule: If, however, the structure is do + dare or do + need, the infinitive is used with to.
Incorrect: You do not need worry about us.
Correct: You do not need to worry about us.

Rule: The following verbs are followed by the infinitive. 
Agree, arrange, attempt, care, cease, consent, decide, determine, endeavour, fall, forget, hesitate, hope,learn, manage, neglect, prepare, promise, propose, refuse, regret, remember, seem, swear, undertake.
Incorrect: I agree for helping you out in trouble.
Correct: I agree to help you out in trouble.

Rule: Prepositions but and except take the infinitive without to.
Incorrect: There is no alternative but to help him out.
Correct : There is no alternative but help him out.

Rule: Expressions would rather, would sooner, rather than, sooner than, had better are followed by infinitive without to.
Incorrect : I would rather to go for batting.
Correct : I would rather go for batting.

(1) Present Participle
(2) Past Participle
(3) Perfect Participle

Rule: Present participle is used when all the parts of a sentence have the same subject;
Incorrect: Opened the drawer, he took out his gun.
Correct: Opening the drawer, he took out his gun.

Rule: When a sentence has two different subjects, avoid using present participle. Instead a clause should be used in such instances.
Incorrect: While going to school, a dog jumped at me.
Correct: While I was going to school, a dog jumped at me.

Rule: Some past participles are used only as adjectives and qualify a noun. They can be used as past participles with changed spellings. For example, shrunken, drunken, sunken, graven, molten.
Incorrect: He and his brother have drunken wine last night.
Correct: He and his brother have drunk wine last night.

Rule: Perfect participle is used when one activity is completely over. Having worked hard, he felt tired.

Auxiliary Verb
Auxiliary literally means giving help, So an auxiliary verb is one that helps the main verb form in tenses, moods, voices etc. The following verbs are auxiliaries: is, are, am, was, were, be, can, could, dare, do, does, did, have, has, had, may, might, must, need, ought, shall, should, will, would, used to.

1. May implies permission, doubt or possibility.
Ex. May I come in? (permission)
It may rain tonight. (possibility)

2. Might is the past form of “may” and it implies more doubt than “may”.
Ex. If the clouds are salted, the rains might come.

3. Can is used to express ability.
Ex. He can do the work.

4. Could is the past form of can but it does not necessarily represent past time. Often it implies a more uncertain condition.
Ex. He could refuse, but she never does.

5. Should expresses the idea that something must be done or is important. 
Should and ought to have similar meanings, but ought is followed by “to” “Ought to” has a more objective force and is used when we are talking about laws, duties and regulations.
Ex. We ought to see her tomorrow.

6. Must is used to give strong advice or orders.
Ex. He really must stop drinking.

7. Do is used to make question and negative forms of ordinary verbs.
Ex. Do you know him?
I don’t like swimming.
“Do” is always used in question-tags.
Ex. You know painting, do you?