PaperDekho : Reasoning

PaperDekho : Reasoning

1. Blood Relation Concepts
Note 1: Cousin’s Children also Niece/Nephew
Note 2: Aunt’s Husband also Uncle and Uncle’s wife is Aunt.
Note 3: If in question paternal and maternal not mentioned, then assume paternal side.
Note 4:
Male represented by +,
Female represented by -,
Husband-wife relationship represented by a dash sign (―)
Sibling relationship represented by(=) sign.

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2. Directions Concepts


1)There are 8 directions in all i.e. N, S, E, W, NE, SE, SW, NW
2)Angle between 2 crosses i.e. NW & NE or N and E etc is 90* 
3)Angle between direction and a cross is 45* i.e. between N & NE or E and SE, etc.

Main Questions that are asked:
1)Find the Final Direction
2)Starting  point direction with respect to the ending point
3)Ending point direction with respect to starting point

Example 1.
A Person is walking towards east 5 meters then he turned towards his right and walks 10 meters. Later in the journey he turned towards his right direction and walks for 15 meters finally he turns right and walks 10 meters.

(i)What is his final direction?-ans:North

(ii)How far is he from his starting point and in which direction?- ans: 10 meters-west

(iii)In which direction is his starting point from ending point?-ans: East



1)The 1st line in the question says that person walks 5m east so write 5m under the east column.

2)The 2nd line says that he turns right and walks 10m since he is facing east so his right would be ‘SOUTH’ direction therefore he walks 10m south so write 10m under the south column.

3)The 3rd line says that he turns right again and walks 15m so right of south is west so write 15m under west column

4)Further the question says that he finally turns right and walks 10m so right of west direction is north so write 10m under north column.
So answer is 10 meters west ( see table for the reason)

5 )LOGIC behind the short cut
 a) Same direction
      10 m
      10 m = 20m
   Then it gets added

b) Opposite direction


3) Opposite direction


Note for step 3 : for point three take the direction asthe bigger one this becomes the starting point direction with respect to ending point therefore the ending direction with respect  to starting point is east.

6)Drawback though this is the fastest way of solving a direction without using a diagram. But we cannot find the ending   direction with this step.

Q.A person is walking towards south for 50 meters. Later he look left and walks30 m.Again he took left and walks  80m. later in the journey he took right and   walks for 10 meters finally he moves to his left and walks 30m and again takes 30m to his left.

 (i) His final direction? Ans:West

(ii) How far is he from his starting point and in which direction?



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3. Inequality Concepts
Inequalities concepts and its application:

(i) A > B ≥ C 
     > is common                 
     A > C             

(ii) A ≥ B > C
     A > C






Answer Options:
(1) Only 1 is true
(2) If only 2 is true
(3) Either 1 or 2 true
(4) Neither 1 nor 2 is true
(5) Both 1 and 2 are true


1) P > Q > R < S ≥ T
A) (i) P > R (T)
    (ii) R < P (T) - (5)

B) (i) P > S (F)  
    (ii) R > P (F) - (4)

C) (i) R = T (F)  
    (ii) R > T (F) - (4)

2) P < Q ≤ R < S > T > U≠Z

A) (i) P < S   

    (ii) Q ≤ S

B) (i) R > T   
    (ii) S > U

C) (i) S > Z   
    (ii) R > P

D) (i) P ≤R  
     (ii) Q ≤ S

E) (i) P > T   
    (ii) P ≤ S

F) (i) P = Z   
    (ii) U ≤ R

A) (i) T   
    (ii) F  (1)
B) (i) F  
    (ii) T  (2)
C) (i) F  
    (ii) T  (2)
D) (i) F  
    (ii) F  (4)
E) (i) F  
    (ii) F  (4)
F) (i) F  
    (ii) F  (4)

3) M≤ N≤ O< P; K = L≥ O > C

A) (i) M < O   

     (ii) M ≤ P

B) (i) K ≥ N  
    (ii) M ≤ O

C) (i) P ≥ K   
    (ii) P ≤ M

D)  (i) M = C  
      (ii) N > C

E) (i) C > P   
    (ii) P = C

F) (i) D = O   
    (ii) D ≤ M

A) (i) F  
    (ii) F-(4)
B) (i) T  
    (ii) T-(5)
C) (i) F   
    (ii) F-(4)
D) (i) F   
    (ii) F-(4)
E) (i) F   
    (ii) F-(4)
F) (i) F   
    (ii) F-(4)

4)T < P≤ U ;  L> U≤K ; P≥ R

A) (i) K≥ R  

     (ii) L> R

B) (i) L > U ≥ P  
    (ii) R ≤ U

C) (i) T < K   
    (ii) L > T

D) (i) R > L   
   (ii) R ≤ L

E) (i) U ≤ R   
   (ii) T < R

A) (i) T  
    (ii) T (5)
B) (i) T   
    (ii) T (5)
C) (i) T  
    (ii) T (5)
D) (i) F  
    (ii) F (4)
E) (i) F  
    (ii) F (4)

5) A≥B≠ C≥ F ;  Z < C ≤ D < E 


A) (i) A ≥ B > C 

    (ii) D ≥ C ≥ F

B)  (i) A > E   
     (ii) D < B

C) (i) B > C   
    (ii) B < D

4) (i) F > E   
   (ii) F < E

5) (i) B < C ≥ F 
   (ii) E ≥ C > B

A) (i) F  
    (ii) F (4)
B) (i) F  
    (ii) F (4)
C) (i) F  
    (ii) F (4)
D) (i) F  
    (ii) T (2)
E) (i) F   
    (ii) F (4)

Either or condition

1)Subject and predicate of the 2 conclusions should be same (may not be in the same order) 

2)Individually both conclusions should be false 

3)Both conclusions should cover maximum solutions according to the given statement. 

5)A ≥ B≥ C

A) (i) A > C  
    (ii) A = C

B) (i) C < A  
    (ii) C = A

C) (i) C ≠ A  
    (ii) A = C

D) (i) A > C  
    (ii) A < C

E) (i) A > C  
    (ii) A ≤ C

A) (i) F   
    (ii) F (3)
2) (i) F   
    (ii) F (3)
3) (i) F   
    (ii) F (4)
4) (i) F   
   (ii) F (4)
5) (i) F   
    (ii) F (4)

Exceptions to Either Or

6) P > Q > R < S

 A) (i) P≤ S  
     (ii) P≥ S

B) (i) P ≠ S  
    (ii) S = P

C) (i) U ≤ V 
    (ii) U ≥ V

D) (i) S>P 
    (ii) S≤P

E) (i) P≠ T (> ,<)  
    (ii) P = T

F) (i) U≤ V 
    (ii) V ≥ U
G) (i) P ≤ T 
    (ii) P ≥ R

H) (i) P ≤ T 
    (ii) P > R

Note: Even though T is not there in the statement, but if there is no definite relation between the ‘2’ letters and covers 3 maximum relations, then it is not false.
A) (i) F   
    (ii) F (3)
B) (i) F   
    (ii) F (3)
C) (i) F   
    (ii) F (3)
D) (i) F   
  v (ii) F (3)
E) (i) F   
    (ii) F (3)
F) (i) F   
    (ii) F (4)
G) (i) F   
    (ii) F (4)
H) (i) F   
    (ii) T (2)

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4. Order & Ranking Concepts

Formulas to  determine the positioning of a person 

1)Left + Right = Total + 1 

2)Left = Total + 1 – Right

3)Right = 1 + 1 – left

4)Total = left + Right
Note : the above formulas are only for a single person's position 


3rd from left
3rd from right
Total= 3+3-1

Same for vertical & Horizontal
1)Total + 1 = top + Bottom
2)Top = Total + 1 – Bottom
3)Bottom = Total + 1 – Top
4)Total = Top + Bottom 

Eg.1: In a row of 40 students, A is 13th  from the left end, find the rank from right end. 


Ans   Total = 40 


A’s rank from right side = Total + 1 – left 
                         = 40 – 13 + 1 
                         = 27 + 1 
                         = 28 

Eg2: M a row ‘P’ is 25th from left end, Q is 30th from right end.  Find the total no. of students in all. 

Cant be Determined as there are more than 1 possibilities
Case 1 


Note : When total is not given and 2 persons positions from left and right are given, then answer is C.D

Eg 3:  In a row of children. A is 17th from left, B is 15th from right.

(1) find the total number of children in the row

Ans. Can’t be determined, as there are more than 1 possibilities

Eg 4: In a row of some children, S is 25th from left, T is 60th from right. If they interchanged their positions, then T becomes 70th from right end 
 (i) What is S’s right-hand position in new position
(ii) What is T’s left hand position in earlier position.
(iii) How many numbers of persons between S and T. 
(iv) What is the total strength 
(v) If ‘Q’ is placed exactly between S & T then what is his rank from left end?



1)S’s new position from left end = 35 

2)T’s left hand position in earlier position = 35 L 

i.e. L = 25 + 9 + 1 
          = 35

L = 94 + 1 - R 
   = 95 – 60 
   = 35

3) Persons in between = 70 – 60 – 1 
                                            = 9 

  Persons in between = Total – 25 – 60 
                                         = 94 – 25 – 60 
                                         = 94 - 85 
                                         = 9 

4)Total strength = 25 + 60 + 9 
                                 = 95 
  Total = 70 + 25 – 1 
             = 94 

Ans : 25 + 4 +1  = 30 from left 

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5. Statements and Course of Actions
If we analyse the questions asked in the examinations till now, we can classify the question into two patterns or types.
I. The first pattern talks of a problem and the suggested courses of action talk of a solution.
II) The second pattern talks of a situation or fact and the courses of actions are ways of improving that situation.

Type 1. Problem Solution Relation
In this type of pattern, the suggested course of action can be followed if.
1) It solves / reduces of minimise the problem
2) the solution or course of action is practically Possible.

Type II: Fact - Improvement Relation 
i. This pattern is solved just by applying the same rules of 
Type I. First we have to identify whether the fact or situation will improve due to the course of action mentioned. Second thing to do is to check whether the, course of action is practically possible.
Never allow our personal perceptions to come into play while evaluating the suggested courses of action. We should always give importance to the way public departments and systems function and we should accept them even if we don't trust them. Our decisions and views should be impartial and impersonal.

Apart from these things, you need to take care of the following points while doing these type of questions :
i. Remember that the course of action should always be positive. Just put yourself in a situation and take the decision right. You don't need to get carried away emotionally or in any kind of psychological feelings.
ii. If the question is demanding to take any action against anyone, then try to search if he/she is repeating the mistake or not because you cannot take decisions just after listening to complaints.
iii. Try to do all questions from this section, even if two of your answers are correct and suppose three are wrong (out of five questions on course of action/statement-assumption), then also you will have positive 1.25 marks.

Below are the questions based on the Statement-Course of action :

Directions : In each question below is given a statement followed by two courses of action numbered I and II. A course of action is a step or administrative decision to be taken for improvement, follow up, or further action in regard to the problem, policy etc. On the basis of the information given in the statement. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then decide which of the two given suggested courses of action logically follows for pursuing.
Give answer:
(a) if only I follows
(b) if only II follows
(c) if either I or II follows
(d) if neither I nor II follows
(e) if both I and II follow

1. Statement : The inmates of Jail X are very dangerous people.
Courses of Action :
I) More security personnel should be deployed to guard the Jail.
II) Some inmates should be shifted to a different jail.

2. Statement : Power supply on state X is terribly poor.
Courses of Action :
I) The concerned authorities should immediately take measures to protect power theft. pilferage etc.
II) The government should buy excess power from the neighboring states.

3. Statement: The teenager was arrested by the police for taking drugs.
Courses of Action :
I) The teenager should be meted with corporal punishment by the police.
II) The teenager should be sent to a drug rehabilitation centre.

4) Statement: Corruption has become rampant in our society.
Courses of Action :
I) All corrupt persons should be brought to book.
II) We should all strive to make our society corruption free.

5) Statement : Floods may create havoc in the country this year too.
Courses of Action :
I) The Government should be on the alert to evacuate flood-affected victims.
II) People should not be afraid of floods.

6) Statement : The State Government has decided to declare "Kala Azar" as a notifiable disease under the Epidemics Act. 1987 . Family members or neighbours of the patient are liable to be punished in case they do not inform the state authorities.
Courses of Action :
I) Efforts should be made to effectively implement the Act.
II) The cases of punishment should be propagated through mass media so that more people become aware of the stern action.

7) Statement : Every year, at the beginning or at the end of the monsoons, we have some cases of conjunctivitis, but this year it seems to be a major epidemic witnessed after nearly four years.
Courses of Action :
I) Precautionary measures should be taken after every four years to check this epidemic.
II) People should be advised to drink boiled water during winter season.

8) Statement : A recent study shows that children below five die in the cities of the developing countries mainly of diarrhoea and parasitic intestinal worms.
Courses of Action :
I) Governments of the developing countries should take adequate measures to improve the hygienic conditions in the cities.
ii) Children below five years in the cities of the developing countries need to be brought under constant medication.

9) Statement : One of the problems facing the food- processing industry is the irregular supply of raw material to other industries also.
Courses of Action :
I) The government should regulate the supply of raw material for the food processing industry.
II) The government should annouce an attractive Package to ensure regular supplly of raw material. The producers of raw material are not getting a reasonable price.

10) Statement : Most the development plans develop on paper only.
Courses of Action :
I) The incharge should be instructed to supervise the field - work regularly.
II) the supply of paper to such departments should be cut short.

1)a I is desirable because tighter security arrangements are needed for dangerous people. II is ruled out because its efficacy is in doubt.

2) e Both I and II are established facts and hence both I and II follows.

3) b It is an established fact that a teenager who takes drugs will never stop it if he is beaten by the police. But the right action is to take him to a rehabilitation centre. Hence only II follows.

4) d Both I and II are vague. It lacks substance. Nothing concrete is being said here. 

5) a If floods occur this year too, I is likely to yield positive results. II is a negative approach. We must refrain from panic but a healthy fear is desirable.

6) e When the Government takes such an action it is necessary that people are made aware of the consequences they would face if they do not obey the directive . Hence II follows. I is obvious.

7) d Against an epidemic, precautionary measures should be taken every year and not every four years. Hence I does not follow. II is not a preventive action against conjunctivitis. Hence II also does not follow.

8) a To improve the hygienic conditions is always a welcome step and in view of the statement it becomes even more necessary. Hence, I unquestionably follows. But II does not. We should not medicate any child unless he has actually contracted the disease. Prevention is all right but curing should begin only after the disease has been contracted.

9) b I is an absurd suggestion. When one industry is facing trouble because of regulations, it talks of regulating the supply of other industrial raw materials too. II is a better action because it would tend to solve the problem.

10) a The Statement mentions a problem that most of the development plans develop on paper only. They are not materialised in reality. This problem could be solved if field work was supervised properly. Hence I follows. But II is a absurd suggestion. The issue is lack of actual field work and not misuse of paper.

6. Syllogism Concepts
4 Types of Statements
a)Universal Statements (All Type Statements)

1)Universal Affirmative/Positive
i.e. All A’s are B’s





Note: Converse All B’s Are A’s is a Possibility

2)Universal Negative : All A’s are not B





Converse All B’s are not A

b)Particular Statements
3)Particular Affirmative/Positive

 Some A’s are B’s




Converse : Some B’s are A’s

4)Particular Negative

Some A’s Are Not B





Converse : Some B’s are not A is a possibility

Learn the following tables with logic:


Other names of all, some, All not & possibilities


1.“Only A are B” means “All B’s are A’s” i.e. subject and predicate – change
2.“All A’s are definitely” means “All A’s are B’s”
3.“None but A is B” means Only A is B which in turn means “All B’s are A’s”
4. A is B means all A is B.

In each question there are five options available, learn these by heart but not necessarily in the same order.
1) only answer 1 is true
2)only answer 2 is true
3) either 1 or 2 is true
4) neither 1 nor 2 is true
5) both 1 and 2 are true.
This sequence will be used in the below do not get confused if numbers 1,2,3,4,5 are used in place of answer.

 Some A’s are B’s
 Some B’s are C’s


Conclusions :

Case (1) 
(a) No A is C (F)
(b) Some A’s are C’s (F)  - (3)

Note : Here both statements are false  as from the diagram nothing definite can be known about relation b/w A and C had the word possibility added to the statements then they would have been true.
Case (2) 
(a) No A is C is a possibility (T) 
(b) Some As are C’s (F) - (1)

Case (3)
 (a) No A is C (F) (2) 
(b) Some A’s are C’s is a possibility (T)- (2)

Case (4)
(a) No A is C  is a possibility (T) 
(b) Some A’s are C’s “     “  (T) - (5)

Conditions of Either Or :
(1) Subject Predicate should be same in both statements
(2) Complimentary pairs i.e. one should be positive and one should be negative 
(3) Maximum possibility i.e. maximum diagrams possibility should be covered
(4) Individually both false
(5) relation between subject and predicate should not be clear.
(6) Either or condition not applicable between All and no type sentences.
i.e. All A’s are C’s (F) 
      No A’s are C’s (F) – then it is (4) and not (3)

But If it is:
All A’s are C’s
Some A’s are not C’s  (F) –the ans is (3)
But if it is:
No A’s are C’s
Some A’s are not C’s- then ans is (4)
This is applicable between all & some statements 

Note: No C is A can also be written as no A is C.
 Similarly some A is C =some C is A.
 So subject is equal to predicate.

ANOTHER METHOD FOR SOLVING SYLLOGISMS : (Note : if method 1 is clear then you do not need this but never the less go through as it helps in clearing the concepts )

RULE METHOD ( learn by heart these)
Rule 1.
All + are  = All
Ex. All A’s are B’s
All B’s are C’s

Rule 2.
Some + All = some
Ex. Some A’s Are B’s
All B’s Are C’s
∴ Some A’s are C’s

Rule 3.
All + Some = no definite conclusion
Ex. All A’s are B’s
Some B’s are C’s
∴ Relationship between A and C is a possibility 

Rule 4.
Some + Some = No definite conclusion 
Rule 5. Some + No = Some not (forward i.e. A to C)
 Ex. Some A’s are B’s
 No B’s are C’s
 ∴ Some A’s are not C’s

Rule 6. 
No + Some = Some not (back words i.e. C to A)
Ex. No A’s are B’s
Some B’s are C’s
∴ Some C’s are not A




Rule 7.
No + No = no definite conclusion 
Ex. No A’s are B’s
No B’s are C’s

∴ Relation between is a possibilities

Rule 8.
Some not + Some not = no definite conclusion (NDC)
Ex. Some A’s are not B 
Some B’s are not C

Rule 9. All + Some not = N D C

Rule 10. Some + Some not = N D C

Rule 11. Not + Some not = N D C

Some Blue are Pink
All Pink are Orange
No Orange is White
Only Grey are White

(a) No White is Orange
(b) Some Orange is Blue

(a) Few White are Grey
(b) No Orange is Blue

(a) Pink is White
(b) 100% White can be Orange

(a) Some Pink are not White
(b) Grey can be White

(a) Some Pink may be White
(b) Some White may be Blue

(a) Some Blue are White 
(B) No Blue is White

(a) T 
(b) T–(5)

(a) T 
(b) F-(1)

 (a) F 
 (b) F–(4)

 (a) T 
 (b) T–(5)

 (a) F 
 (b) T–(2)

(a) F 
(b) F–(3)

(Q.)All Blue are Pink
    No Pink is Orange
    Only Blue are White
    Some Pens are Boxes
    No Boxes are Scales

Note :Whenever there are diagrams without relation then all statements whether positive or negative have to be with possibility.

(1) Some Pink are White
(2) Each Orange cannot be White
(3) Some Blue are Pens 
(4) Some Boxes are pens as well as Scales
(5) No Orange is Scales
(6) Only Boxes can be Pens
(7) No White is Orange
(8) 0% Orange may be Blue
(9) Some Scales may be Blue & White
(10) All Pink Blue & White & Boxes being Scales is a possibility 
(11) All Scales Pens & Orange being White is a possibility
(12) Almost Orange & Pink can be a combination part of pens & Boxes

Ans. (1) T, (2) F, (3) F, (4) F, (5) F, (6) T, (7) T, (8) F, (9) T, (10) F, (11) F, (12) T
Question 1:

A. All flowers are trees
B. Some trees are houses
C. All houses are wheels

Let’s first make a BD according to these statements.

1. At least some wheels are trees
2. Some trees are flowers
3. All wheels are flower is a possibility

Now, see the BD,
Conclusion 1 clearly follows. 
Conclusion 2 also clearly follows. 
But, what about Conclusion 3?

Let’s make a MD and see if it follows or not!

In the MD, we can clearly see that all the statements are still valid, and Conclusion 3 also is following. So, Conclusion 3 follows. 
1? Follows
2? Follows
3? Follows


Let’s now solve another question!

Question 2:

A. Some desks are chairs
B. Some chairs are pens
C. Some pens are drawers

First, make a BD according to these statements. 

1. At least some drawers are desks
2. There is a possibility all drawers are chairs
3. No drawer is a chair

Now, see the BD
Conclusion 1 clearly doesn’t follow. 

But, what about Conclusion 2?

Let’s make a MD

See the MD, Conclusion 2 follows in it.

And if there is a possibility that All drawers are chairs, then how could No drawer is a chair follow?
So, Conclusion 3 will not follow! 
1? Doesn’t follows
2? Follows
3? Doesn’t follows

Let’s solve another one!

Question 3:

A. All politicians are corrupt
B. Some politicians are honest
C. No leader is honest

First, make a BD according to these statements.

1. Some politicians are not leader
2. All honest being corrupt is a possibility

3. Some leaders are not corrupt

Now, see the BD, 
Some politicians, which are honest (Red Portion), cannot beleaders. 
So, Conclusion 1 clearly follows. 

But, what about Conclusion 2?

Let’s make a MD.

See the MD, Conclusion 2 clearly follows!

What about conclusion 3?

Let’s make another MD.

See the last diagram, All leaders are corrupt could be a possibility! So, Conclusion 3 doesn’t follow. 
1? Follows
2? Follows
3? Doesn’t follows

Question 4:

A. Some people are intelligent
B. All intelligent are honest
C. No intelligent is smart

First, make a BD according to these statements.

1. Some honest are not smart
2. All people being honest is a possibility
3. Some honest are people

Now, see the BD, 
Some honest, which are intelligent (Red Portion), cannot be smart. 
So, Conclusion 1 follows.

But, what about Conclusion 2?

Let’s make a MD.

See the MD, Conclusion 2 clearly follows.

Conclusion 3 also follows. 
1? Follows
2? Follows
3? Follows

Question 5:

A. Some writers are poets
B. All poets are singers
C. Many singers are actors
D. No singer is a dancer

First, make a BD according to these statements.

1. Some writers are singers
2. Some actors are not dancers
3. All poets being actor is a possibility
4. No poet is a dancer

See the BD, 
Conclusion 1 clearly follows.

Also, some actors, which are singers (Red Portion), cannot be dancers. 
So, Conclusion 2 also follows.

But, what about Conclusion 3?

Let’s make a MD.

See the MD, 
Conclusion 3 clearly follows.

Also, since no singer is a dancer, so, no poet is a dancer. 
Hence, Conclusion 4 is also following!
1? Follows
2? Follows
3? Follows
4? Follows

PS: Try re-doing these questions again if you still feel confused. Confusions will be clear this way!